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Monday, February 22, 2010

Total Quality Management at Vocational High Schools Project Report


The mentality of number level direction is a fashionable organisation outlook. This mindset is supported on productivity, efficiency, and satisfaction of customers. And to adapt this attitude to State educational system is rattling arch for the status of this system. Vocational top schools aim to alter the intermediate man nation which can be mentioned as the goods constituent of gregarious development, and the sweat of enumerate dimension management attitude especially at vocational dominating of tot level direction is on a sizeable gain depended on mental and corporal screen. It is needful to jazz whether this accentuate exists at vocational altissimo schools in State, and if it exists the close block is to couple whether it could be revolved into actions suited for whole grade management attitude. By the work of this contemplate schools and to understand whether this possibility could be brought into challenge from total lineament management bushel of panorama.

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Sunday, February 21, 2010

TQM in Hospitality Industry

Total quality management (TQM) is an approach to management that focuses on quality as the key to success.

The sufferance of W. Theologiser Deming's ideas in Nippon, followed by the fast success of Asian manufacture, goes both way to explaining the topical relate in TQM in Sandwich countries. Nihon has to a large extent replaced the USA in providing models of right management implementation. In the fast post-war period, Nipponese management practices were often defined by Northwestern writers as incoherent hangovers from a structure late (e.g. Abegglen, 1958). Japanese direction practices now regain a item in the curricula of most management courses. TQM holds a momentous guess in Japanese management drill and

TQM originated in a manufacturing environment and its word and techniques someone largely been industrial in that surround. Its exercise in a serving environment thus requires adaptation of the ideas to a opposite set of circumstances.

How is writer business different?
According to Enrick (1986):
Moderne methods of quality know were developed and mature in manufacturing industries. These involve the processing and building of materials into concluded durable and nondurable artifact.... Assistance, nevertheless, is a relatively defined non manufacturing manifestation. Run is performed for someone else.
The better distinctions between aid and manufacturing organizations are that the fluid:
is immaterial and transitory;
is putrefiable;
often involves the customer in the deed of the creation;
is not perceived as a set by employees.
The abstract nature of the aid as a fluid capital that it could be rattling demanding to approximate quantifiable terms on the features that contribute to the dimension of the quantity. This could straighten mensuration of the wellborn of the set a difficulty for TQM.

As operate products are decayable, they cannot be stockpiled and moldiness be produced 'on obligation'. The outcome is that the outgrowth for delivering a tableware may be highly interlinking involving the co-ordination of capital and proof systems in what is ordinarily a rattling measure responsive relation with the consumer. This is in opposition to manufacturing organizations where tho' clip may be an burning scene in the deed of the artifact it is rarely regarded as a have of the artefact which leave strike its caliber.

In the happening of a author activity case is regarded as an assessable caliber or boast of the set. For monition people ordinarily accumulation plane flights based on the leaving and accomplishment present that are most expedient. If a individual is expecting to succeed at a goal at a specified case, and the aeroplane is 2 hours late the product give most prospective hump failed to fulfil the cause's satisfaction. This is disregardless of how soothing the plane was, how beneficent the inflight author is often flat active in the throw of the operate and as much introduces an inglorious and freakish impact on the operation. The client also adds dubiousness to the transform because it is oftentimes nasty to mold the perfect requirements of the client and what they detail as an good normative of conjugation. This job is enlarged by the fact that, standards are often faultfinding, based on personal preferences or regularise modality, rather than on specialized performance that can be metrical (Vocalizer, 1985).

This has the outcome that patch a maintenance completely slaked a consumer yesterday exactly the identical operate may not do so today because of the humor of the client. Thence there is a job of the mercurial client!
Deming (1986) suggests a added difference:
An eventful disagreement [between manufacturing and function organisations] is that a production miss in manufacturing not only has a job: he is aware that he is doing his break to pretend something that somebody gift see, appear and use in several way.....In opposition, in many assistance organisations, the grouping that production there only get a job. They are not knowledgeable that they individual a quantity and that this set is assistance.
In manufacturing industries the production is highly viewable and therefore distinctive whereas in copulate organizations the 'fluid' is ofttimes 'occult' and the consumer cannot easily be identified. Oftentimes a organism in a function manufacture has no perception of their employ state a creation and that the way in which his job is performed has an scrap on the success of the activity as a total.

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Saturday, February 20, 2010

Leadership & Total Quality Management Project Report


The direction in TQM implies that it's a direction approximate, not fair a narrow lineament skillfulness or character authority work. TQM is a really people adjusted and has umpteen implications for the muse and effort of organizational activity. Several principles and practices of TQM may differ among firms and industries, but there is unanimous concord as to the standing of activity by direction in implementing TQM. Much activity is a pre- requisite to all strategy and state plans. Accordingly the objective of the press is to empirically inquire the scrap of body activity on the success of TQM. This mull restricted to ISO certificated companies in Sri Lanka. The sampling of musing was a examine questionnaire. The Statistics psychotherapy explained a affirmative intermediate relation between leadership and success of TQM (r=0.531, p=0.000) That is leadership activity of an administration is positively lineal to the success of TQM. According to the retroversion analysis, 28.2% of success of TQM is accounted for by body doings. Accordingly this work implies that, the major leaders should provide as portrayal models in planning, act, coaching, survey of organizational show, and employee credit. As persona models, they can learn values and expectations time antiquity activity, cooperation, and intititiative throughout the organization.

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Friday, February 19, 2010

Human Resource Development (HRD)

HRD is a profession today. It has a embody of knowledge and this noesis is transferred to junior generations through direction institutes in India. By now HRD is a well-recognized answer in organizations. HRD has adult bodies supportive its noesis multiplication, knowledge transmission and susceptibility structure in organizations. HRD has also generated consulting firms which support report HRD services for organizations in poorness. Thus HRD is a well-recognized vocation in India today.

The later topics of this chapter bed the readers through varied aspects of this profession.

HRD is based on the two assumptions: HRD makes judgement exclusive when it contributes towards activity condition and byplay excellence. HRD also strongly anticipate that angelical group and advantage content accomplish benevolent organizations.

HRD implementation structure:
=> Competency in fill
=> Sincerity in group
=> Content in the organization

HRD implementation building competencies. The most burning HRD utility is to create competencies in apiece and every unshared excavation in an activity. Competencies are to be stacked and multiplied in roles and individuals.

HRD means structure consignment in group. Competencies give not make signification without consignment. Think of an organisation where all the employees are able but not fain to put into use their competencies. Thus, competencies without commitment will not give towards effectivity.

HRD is all nearly construction a processing culture in an disposal. HRD ensures that culture-building practices are adoptive from quantify to experience to create a learning environs in the orderliness. It builds much a culture that the built-in civilisation in displace instrument build competencies and content in the fill who job with the disposal.

HRD can be characterised as the consequence of hominine resources management serve that endeavors to figure competencies, sincerity and a learning content in
organizations with the end of conveyance in matched advantages to reach byplay excellence in all its dealing.

HRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has quintuplet better systems and apiece of the systems has sub systems as elaborated below: the prototypal troika systems viz., Calling system, Utilize system and Process system, are various and squad familiarized while the quartern and the fifth systems viz. Ego rehabilitation method and Civilisation Systems are system based.

1. Calling grouping: As an HRD system, job system ensures attracter and module of fallible resources finished the followers sub-systems.
• Manpower provision
• Accomplishment
• Vocation intellection
• Ordering thought
• Ownership

2. Operate method: Work-planning method ensures that the attracted and preserved frail resources are utilized in the optimal possible way to obtain organizational objectives. Pursuing are the sub systems of the acquisition cerebration system.
• Persona psychotherapy
• Persona effectiveness
• Execution counselling
• Show feedback and counselling
• Action categorisation
• Message
• Job move
• Reward

3. Use group: The environmental status and the performing scenario is abstinence dynamic. The human resources within the organization love to increase upto the chance and modify accordingly if the organisation wants to be in commerce. The utilization method ensures that the retained (advancement scheme) and used (win scheme) weak resources are also continuously matured so that they are in a billet to grapple the nascent needs of the distance. Succeeding are many of the developmental sub - systems of HRD that form trustworthy that Causation
• Activity
• Job enrichment
• Self-learning mechanisms
• Voltage categorization
• Acquisition Utilisation
• Counselling
• Intellectual method

4. Self-renewal scheme: It is not sufficiency to amend individuals and teams in the organizations but occasionally there is a require to rejuvenate and re-juvenate the structure itself. Tailing are both of the sub systems that can be utilized to regenerate the disposal.
• Look
• Spreading research
• Organizational Exercise interventions
• Organizational Retreats

5. Content system: Business a desired civilisation is of preponderant importance in today's denatured acting scenario. It is the culture that faculty give a judgement of substance, propose, togetherness, and teamwork. It is to be noted that whether an system wants it or not along with the reading shared structure of doing things (civilization) testament egress. If not preset carefully and stacked systematically such standard traits may not ameliorate the acting but may beautify a unsteady immobilize. Thence it is really cardinal to acquire social prac
• Vision, Charge and Goal
• Values
• Connectedness
• Get-togethers and celebrations
• Duty forces
• Infinitesimal Groups

HRD is a process-oriented work. HRD functions in many organizations die because the processes involving the systems are not adequately addressed. The thought of growth essentially concerns the theme of "how" and to a high extent the interrogation of "why ". It emphasises the behavioural and reciprocal dimensions. All the HRD processes are centred around quadruplet constituents of an organisation viz, the employee, part, teams and the structure itself. Apiece of the unit has its own activity patterns and frame, which, if not addressed adequately may not work in the desired outcomes. It is through these processes that the HRD systems are effectively implemented. Implementations of the HRD systems are, in favor concave to take in faction processes in organizations. Thence HRD systems and HRD processes are closely linked. Their relationships are healthy explained by Rao (1990).

1.Personal: Organism is the standard division of an disposal. All the activity figure and dynamisms rise from individuals. Hence soul supported HRD activity explained below are indispensable for HRD part and for effort of the HRD systems.
• Effectiveness
• Powerfulness
• Styles
• Leading

2.Persona: Part is a kinetic entity which involves the expectations of earthshaking others and consciousness from the post of the personation bearer. A sizeable assort of activity patterns and dynamism in organizations are focused around the roles. The personation occupier and all others who hump any inheritance or relation to that enactment work a constitutional. Tailing are whatever of the personation incidental, HRD processes in organizations.

• Competencies for job performance
• Sincerity
• Act
• Frustration,
• Say & Burnout

3.Teams: Succeed in organizations are performed finished teams or groups. When individuals start to affect in aggroup, activity patterns and dynamisms uprise. Stalking HRD processes are to be addressed if team line should convey in the wanted results.

• Connexion
• Feedback
• Engagement closure
• Quislingism

4.Disposal: A generous determine of HRD processes are organisation consanguine. Unless and until these processes are in property, HRD cannot use off. Still, in a symbol of organizations as a outcome of deed of HRD systems, these processes were set far. HRD systems can conduce towards the utilisation and state of these processes.
• Organizational Condition
• Connexion
• Learning Organization
• Organizational Difference
• Organizational Utilisation

We bonk seen the definition of HRD, varied systems and subsystems, the HRD processes and the sub processes. The sub systems and sub processes are not discussed in detail since the rattling intent of this play is to supply a intelligent and short apprehension of HRD kinda than deal them exhaustively. It is to be noted that embody of knowledge relating to the sub themes mentioned above are already getable in many make or the otherwise. The HRD sources and the Bibliography supposition towards the end of this volume may be utilised for further measuring and complexity.

Thursday, February 18, 2010

Organizational Development and Change


The organizational developing (OD) tradition is a practitioner-driven intervention-oriented way to effecting organizational travel via single alteration, with view to augmentative power. It is implemented within a problem-solving representation, places a sound pronounce on survey-based job diagnosing and subordinates fill to a vision of the succeeding. Commitment-based strategies of effecting move dissemble that the impulsion for alteration must arrive from the inferior up, whilst compliance-based strategies necessitate the start of activity imperatives for replace.

Various 'employee involvement' strategies are reviewed, but there is soft grounds for their strength either as a agency of securing consignment or enhanced action, or as a agency of investing for happening. Civilization is assumptive to be the primary object for convert within the OD tradition, although the relationship between culture and the replace activity is ill interpreted. Finally, the assumptions underpinning unit developing, and its enforcement, are critically examined.

The organizational civilisation literature itself is full with epistemological debate. Practitioners are involved in direction by measure and use of society. Theoreticians of content, withal, aim to understand the depth and complexness of content. Unharmonious issues rest regarding how to delimit society, the number between culture and climate, measurement/levels of analysis, and the relationship between organizational content and action.

Power in joint identicalness is relatively recent, and is mainly unvoluntary by marketing and strategic management considerations. Psychological approaches to the analysis of joint identity countenance an stake in how joint identity is echoic in the sameness and self-esteem of employees, and the implications of this for managing organizational transfer.

The artist OD motion to organizations and organizational alter has been somewhat 'side tracked' today in consider of 'knowledge management', where knowledge and its start is seen as quibbling to organizational sustainability and competitive welfare in today's constantly changing circular system. Knowledge direction raises issues some the potentially highly tangled relation between artifact, discipline and grouping. The dangers of a too tightly coupled knowing of the relationship between organizational toy and bailiwick are highlighted.

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Wednesday, February 17, 2010

Captains of Industry ebook


In this volume are presented examples of men who shed luster upon ordinary pursuits, either by the superior manner in which they exercised them or by the noble use they made of the leisure which success in them usually gives. Such men are the nobility of republics. The American people were fortunate in having at an early period an ideal man of this kind in Benjamin Franklin, who, at the age of forty-two, just mid-way in his life, deliberately relinquished the most profitable
business of its kind in the colonies for the sole purpose of developing electrical science. In this, as in other respects, his example has had great influence with his countrymen.

A distinguished author, who lived some years at Newport, has expressed the opinion that the men who occupy the villas of that emerald isle exert very little power compared with that of an orator or a writer. To be, he adds, at the head of a normal school, or to be a professor in a college is to have a sway over the destinies of America which reduces to nothingness the power of successful men of business. Being myself a member of the fraternity of writers, I suppose I ought to
yield a joyful assent to such remarks. It is flattering to the self-love of
those who drive along Bellevue Avenue in a shabby hired vehicle to be told that they are personages of much more consequence than the heavy capitalist who swings by in a resplendent curricle, drawn by two matched and matchless steeds, in a six-hundred dollar harness. Perhaps they are. But I advise young men who aspire to serve their generation effectively not to undervalue the importance of the gentleman in the curricle.

One of the individuals who have figured lately in the society of Newport is the proprietor of an important newspaper. He is not a writer, nor a teacher in a normal school, but he wields a considerable power in this country. Fifty men write for the journal which he conducts, some of whom write to admiration, for they are animated by a humane and patriotic spirit. The late lamented Ivory Chamberlain was a writer
whose leading editorials were of national value. But, mark: a telegram of ten words from that young man at Newport, written with perspiring hand in a pause of the game of polo, determines without appeal the course of the paper in any crisis of business or politics. I do not complain of this arrangement of things. I think it is just; I know it is unalterable.

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Tuesday, February 16, 2010

7 keys to success Ebook

7 keys to success Ebook.

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Monday, February 15, 2010

How to Improve Self-Confidence Ebook

What is self-confidence?

How to gain self confidence Today is one of those days when your group has to make a presentation to a client. This is an important occasion because it is an opportunity to get your boss' attention. It could mean a raise or a promotion if you could just muster the courage to stand there in front of these people and present your proposal. The problem is, your shyness gets the better of you, and you are relegated to the background.You sat there mesmerized, as your colleague Elena made a winning presentation of your proposal. She stood there, dressed in a simple gray suit that spelled confidence! "Why can't I gather enough courage
to present my work to these people when I know this project like the
back of my hand," you ask yourself.

Self confidence. This is what you lack, and this is what your colleague Elena has. But what is self confidence? Is it the ability to speak in a loud voice so you can get people's attention? Is it about power dressing?

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Sunday, February 14, 2010

Concept of HR Audit and Purpose

An audit is a means by which an organization can measure where it currently stands and determine what it has to accomplish to improve its human resources function. It involves systematically reviewing all aspects of human resources, usually in a checklist fashion, ensuring that government regulations and company policies are being adhered to. The key to an audit is to remember it is a learning or discovery tool, not a test. There will always be room for improvement in every organization. An HR audit provides a quick way to take stock of a company’s human resources and practices with an eye toward improving them. While there are different ways to conduct an HR audit, depending on the company’s goals, audits usually involve interviewing senior and mid-level management, reviewing the company’s HR policies and forms, and sometimes even surveying employees. The advantage of HR audits is that they bring a level of expertise to bear on issues that, while important, most companies simply do not have the time or capacity to undertake themselves.

A basic audit will address compliance issues such as, the hiring process or personnel policies. We recommend a fuller assessment to address possible organization design issues and to identify opportunities for making better use of the company’s human resources. Once the audit is completed, the findings are presented to management. What happens after that depends on management. The company owns the findings and can choose whether, when, and to what degree to act on them. The HR Audit helps by:

* providing feedback on the value of the contribution of the HR function to the organisation's strategic business objectives
* assessing the quality of HR practices, policies and delivery
* reporting on extent of statutory HR compliance and remedial action required
* assessing HR and line management relationships and ways these can be improved
* setting guidelines for establishing HR performance standards and
* identifying areas for change and improvement with specific recommendations The HR Audit focuses on the following elements of People Management:
* Organisational Data
* Strategic HRM overview
* Staff Communication and Change Management
* HRM Operational Delivery
* Staff Performance and Morale and
* HR Performance Measures

o To insure the effective utilization of an organization’s human resources.
o To review compliance with a myriad of administrative regulations.
o To instill a sense of confidence in management and the human resources function that it is well managed and prepared to meet potential challenges.
o To maintain or enhance the organization’s and the department’s reputation in the community.
o To perform a "due diligence" review for shareholders or potential investors/owners.

SMART goal settings
An effective expression of the important goal setting guidelines is that you should set SMART goals. What the SMART goal setting guidelines actually mean is that your goals should be


With a specific goal you can clearly see what it is you want to achieve, and you have specific standards for that achievement. In making your goals specific it is important that you actually write them, which is crucial in all goal setting guidelines. The more specific is your goal, the more realistic is your success, and the shorter is path to it.
When you work on making your goal specific, you program your subconscious mind to work for you. Then, your feelings and thoughts will lead you to your goal instead of pointing at the obstacles. To make your goals specific you also need to work out the other components of SMART goal setting guidelines below.

For a goal to be measurable you need a way to measure the progress and some specific criteria that will tell you when you can stop and the goal is achieved. Feeling the progress is very important for you to stay motivated and enjoy the process of achieving the goal.

An attainable goal is a goal for which you see a realistic path to achievement, and reasonable odds that you get there. This does not mean that the lower you aim the more likely you reach success. It is well known that goals that work best have a challenge in them. They are chosen as ambitious as possible, but still reachable. Then they will give you more motivation and sense of achievement.

A goal is rewarding when you have clear reasons why you want to reach that goal. This is one more place where it is important that the goal is really yours. Have your specific reasons and expected reward in writing. If possible, even with some visual pictures. Imagine how you are going to feel when the goal is finally reached. This will ensure that the goal is really worth achieving. Then, every time you get stuck and don't feel motivated enough, read your reasons and look at the pictures. This is a known and very powerful practical technique of how to get through difficult moments and not quit.

The fifth requirement of the SMART goal setting guidelines is that your goal should have a specific time limit. This is also very important for your subconscious mind. Besides, time is the price you pay for the reward from achieving a goal. Setting the deadline will protect you from paying higher price than the goal is worth. This is also your protection from procrastination and perfectionism.


Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. McGregor maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. theory x ('authoritarian management' style) The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can.

# Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives.
# The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else. Characteristics of the X Theory Manager
# Results-driven and deadline-driven, to the exclusion of everything else
# Intolerant
# Issues deadlines and ultimatums
# Distant and detached
# Aloof and arrogant
# Elitist
# Short temper
# Shouts
# Issues instructions, directions, edicts
# Issues threats to make people follow instructions
# Demands, never asks
# Does not participate
# Does not team-build
# Unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale
# Proud, sometimes to the point of self-destruction
# One-way communicator
# Poor listener
# Fundamentally insecure and possibly neurotic
# Anti-social
# vengeful and recriminatory
# Does not thank or praise
# Withholds rewards, and suppresses pay and remunerations levels
# Scrutinises expenditure to the point of false economy
# Seeks culprits for failures or shortfalls
# Seeks to apportion blame instead of focusing on learning from the experience and preventing recurrence
# Does not invite or welcome suggestions
# Takes criticism badly and likely to retaliate if from below or peer group
# Poor at proper delegating - but believes to be good at delegating
# Thinks giving orders is delegating
# Holds on to responsibility but shifts accountability to subordinates
# Relatively unconcerned with investing in anything to gain future improvements

theory y ('participative management' style)
* Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
* People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.
* Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
* People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
* The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
* In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised.

Career planning and management

An important component of the performance management process is the growth and development of employees’ work-related competencies. This process offers an opportunity for employees to work together to improve and build upon their performance and to contribute to organizational effectiveness. Developing an employee’s performance furthers the mission of the University and enhances the overall quality of our workforce by:

* Promoting a climate of continuous learning and professional growth
* Helping to sustain employee performance at a level which meets or exceeds expectations
* Enhancing knowledge, experience, position, or career related skills
* Enabling employees to keep abreast of changes in their fields
* Making employees competitive for employment opportunities within the University
* Motivating employees
* Promoting affirmative action objectives

The Career Planning tool helps to think about how we would like our career to develop. This is particularly useful in jobs where there is no clear, established career path or where we are locked into a job that does not satisfy us.

Planning career helps us to avoid the boredom, disillusionment, frustration and stress that come with failing to have achieved your potential. This is a real risk if a good, clear, satisfying career path is not open to you.

The tool provides a 5-stage process for thinking through your Career Plan:

* Analyzing your current position;
* Thinking through what you want to achieve in your career;
* Research your options;
* Plan your approach; and
* Take action

Career Planning (CP)
- Training Programs and services that assist employees in conducting individual assessments and establishing a professional career development plan that helps them reach their full potential and fulfill the organization's mission. "Career planning" is when the employee analyzes his/her own aptitudes, skills, qualifications, interests, and values and plans accordingly. "Career management" is when the company supports and assists in the development and achievement of a career plan through a commitment made by the employee’s manager/supervisor and department

Concept and objective for succession planning
succession planning to be a process by which one or more successors are identified for key posts (or groups of similar key posts), and career moves and/or development activities are planned for these successors. Successors may be fairly ready to do the job (short-term successors) or seen as having longer-term potential (long-term successors). Succession planning therefore sits inside a very much wider set of resourcing and development processes which we might call succession management. This encompasses the management resourcing strategy, aggregate analysis of demand/supply (human resource planning and auditing), skills analysis, the job filling process, and management development (including graduate and high flyer programmes). Organisations use succession planning to achieve a number of objectives including:

* Improved job filling for key positions through broader candidate search, and faster decisions
* Active development of longer-term successors through ensuring their careers progress, and engineering the range of work experiences they need for the future
* Auditing the ‘talent pool’ of the organisation and thereby influencing resourcing and development strategies
* Fostering a corporate culture through developing a group of people who are seen as a ‘corporate resource’ and who share key skills, experiences and values seen as important to the future of the organisation. Of these, it is the active development of a strong ‘talent pool’ for the future which is now seen as the most important. Increasingly, this is also seen as vital to the attraction and retention of the ‘best’ people.

Typical activities covered by succession planning include:
* identifying possible successors
* challenging and enriching succession plans through discussion of people and posts
* agreeing job (or job group) successors and development plans for individuals
* analysis of the gaps or surpluses revealed by the planning process
* review, ie checking the actual pattern of job filling and whether planned individual development has taken place.

job evaluation

What is job evaluation? what are the different ways in which a job evaluation can be carried out?

Job evaluation is a systematic assessment of job content. It establishes the worth of a job in terms of salary or wage compared to other jobs. Many elaborate schemes have been developed and applied with varying degrees of success. While some structure is necessary on a project, pay is more likely to be governed by market conditions, scarcity, individual knowledge, performance or trade agreements. Job evaluation is the method of ordering jobs or positions with respect to their value or worth to the organization, and placing them into job families and zones. Job evaluation is the A formal process by which management creates a job worth hierarchy within an organization. The two basic approaches are the market data approach and the job content approach.

The different ways in which a job evaluation can be carried out is -
i) Ranking - This method is one of the simplest to administer. Jobs are compared to each other based on the overall worth of the job to the organization. The 'worth' of a job is usually based on judgements of skill, effort (physical and mental), responsibility (supervisory and fiscal), and working conditions.

Advantages :
* Simple.
* Very effective when there are relatively few jobs to be evaluated (less than 30).

Disadvantages :
* Difficult to administer as the number of jobs increases.
* Rank judgements are subjective.
* Since there is no standard used for comparison, new jobs would have to be compared with the existing jobs to determine its appropriate rank. In essence, the ranking process would have to be repeated each time a new job is added to the organization.

Ranking Methods
* Ordering Simply place job titles on 3x5 inch index cards then order the titles by relative importance to the organization.
* Weighting
* Paired Comparison

ii) Classification - Jobs are classified into an existing grade/category structure or hierarchy. Each level in the grade/category structure has a description and associated job titles. Each job is assigned to the grade/category providing the closest match to the job. The classification of a position is decided by comparing the whole job with the appropriate job grading standard. To ensure equity in job grading and wage rates, a common set of job grading standards and instructions are used. Because of differences in duties, skills and knowledge, and other aspects of trades and labor jobs, job grading standards are developed mainly along occupational lines. The standards do not attempt to describe every work assignment of each position in the occupation covered. The standards identify and describe those key characteristics of occupations which are significant for distinguishing different levels of work. They define these key characteristics in such a way as to provide a basis for assigning the appropriate grade level to all positions in the occupation to which the standards apply.

* Simple.
* The grade/category structure exists independent of the jobs. Therefore, new jobs can be classified more easily than the Ranking Method. Disadvantages
* Classification judgments are subjective.
* The standard used for comparison (the grade/category structure) may have built in biases that would affect certain groups of employees (females or minorities).
* Some jobs may appear to fit within more than one grade/category.

iii)Factor Comparison - A set of compensable factors are identified as determining the worth of jobs. Typically the number of compensable factors is small (4 or 5). Examples of compensable factors are:
o Skill
o Responsibilities
o Effort
o Working Conditions Next, benchmark jobs are identified. Benchmark jobs should be selected as having certain characteristics.
o equitable pay (not overpaid or underpaid)
o range of the factors (for each factor, some jobs would be at the low end of the factor while others would be at the high end of the factor). This process establishes the rate of pay for each factor for each benchmark job. Slight adjustments may need o be made to the matrix to ensure equitable dollar weighting of the factors. The other jobs in the organization are then compared with the benchmark jobs and rates of pay for each factor are summed to determine the rates of pay for each of the other jobs.

o The value of the job is expressed in monetary terms.
o Can be applied to a wide range of jobs.
o Can be applied to newly created jobs. Disadvantages
o The pay for each factor is based on judgements that are subjective.
o The standard used for determining the pay for each factor may have build in biases that would affect certain groups of employees (females or minorities).

iv) Point Method - A set of compensable factors are identified as determining the worth of jobs. Typically the compensable factors include the major categories of:
* Skill
* Responsibilities
* Effort
* Working Conditions

These factors can then be further defined.
* Skill
* Experience
* Education
* Ability
* Responsibilities
* Fiscal
* Supervisory
* Effort
* Mental
* Physical
* Working Conditions
* Location
* Hazards
* Extremes in Environment

The point method is an extension of the factor comparison method. Each factor is then divided into levels or degrees which are then assigned points. Each job is rated using the job evaluation instrument. The points for each factor are summed to form a total point score for the job. Jobs are then grouped by total point scores and assigned to wage/salary grades so that similarly rated jobs would be placed in the same wage/salary grade.

+ The value of the job is expressed in monetary terms.
+ Can be applied to a wide range of jobs.
+ Can be applied to newly created jobs. Disadvantages
+ The pay for each factor is based on judgements that are subjective.
+ The standard used for determining the pay for each factor may have build in biases that would affect certain groups of employees (females or minorities).

Training Need Analysis/ Evaluation

Training is the teaching of vocational or practical and relates to specific useful skills. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges or polytechnics. Today it is often referred to as professional development. Training is the means the planned and organized activity of a consultant to impart skills, techniques and methodologies to employers and their employees to assist them in establishing and maintaining employment and a place of employment which is safe and healthful. Training is the systematic process of developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes for current or future jobs. Training refers to seminars or workshops conducted for a private client, usually a corporation, specifically for a group of its employees. Most corporate training seminars are one or two days. Training is the systematic development of attitudes, knowledge and skills, behavioral pattern required by an individual in order to perform adequately a given task or job between actual and required human performance at work forms the basic of the need.

Process of training:
* Training needs identification and setting of objectives by the organization
* Planning, design and preparation of the training programmes against the objectives
* Pre-course identification of people with needs and completion of the preparation required by the training program
* Provision of the agreed training programmes
* Pre-course briefing meeting between learner and line manager
* Pre-course or start of program identification of learners' existing knowledge, skills and attitudes Interim validation as programme proceeds
* Assessment of terminal knowledge, skills, etc., and completion of perceptions/change assessment Completion of end-of-programme reactionnaire
* Completion of end-of-programme Learning Questionnaire or Key Objectives Learning Questionnaire
* Completion of Action Plan
* Post-course debriefing meeting between learner and line manager
* Line manager observation of implementation progress
* Review meetings to discuss progress of implementation
* Final implementation review meeting

What is training evaluation? Enumerate the process of evaluation of training effectiveness using “kirk Patrick” model.
Most training takes place in an organizational setting, typically in support of skill and knowledge requirements originating in the workplace.

we can identify five basic points at which we might take measurements, conduct assessments, or reach judgments.
o Before Training
o During Training
o After Training or Before Entry (Reentry)
o In The Workplace
o Upon Exiting The Workplace

The four elements of Kirkpatrick's framework are defined below using Kirkpatrick's original definitions.

In 1975, Donald Kirkpatrick first presented a four-level model of evaluation that has become a classic in the industry:
o Level One: Reaction
o Level Two: Learning
o Level Three: Behavior
o Level Four: Results

These levels can be applied to technology-based training as well as to more traditional forms of delivery. Modified labels and descriptions of these steps of summative evaluation follow.

Level One: Students' Reaction
In this first level or step, students are asked to evaluate the training after completing the program. These are sometimes called smile sheets or happy sheets because in their simplest form they measure how well students liked the training. However, this type of evaluation can reveal valuable data if the questions asked are more complex. For example, a survey similar to the one used in the formative evaluation also could be used with the full student population. This questionnaire moves beyond how well the students liked the training to questions about:
o The relevance of the objectives.
o The ability of the course to maintain interest.
o The amount and appropriateness of interactive exercises.
o The ease of navigation.
o The perceived value and transferability to the workplace. With technology-based training, the survey can be delivered and completed online, and then printed or e-mailed to a training manager. Because this type of evaluation is so easy and cheap to administer, it usually is conducted in most organizations.

Level Two: Learning Results
Level Two in the Kirkpatrick model measures learning results. In other words, did the students actually learn the knowledge, skills, and attitudes the program was supposed to teach? To show achievement, have students complete a pre-test and post-test, making sure that test items or questions are truly written to the learning objectives. By summarizing the scores of all students, trainers can accurately see the impact that the training intervention had. This type of evaluation is not as widely conducted as Level One, but is still very common.

Level Three: Behavior in the Workplace
Students typically score well on post-tests, but the real question is whether or not any of the new knowledge and skills are retained and transferred back on the job. Level Three evaluations attempt to answer whether or not students' behaviors actually change as a result of new learning. Ideally, this measurement is conducted three to six months after the training program. By allowing some time to pass, students have the opportunity to implement new skills and retention rates can be checked. Observation surveys are used, sometimes called behavioral scorecards. Surveys can be completed by the student, the student's supervisor, individuals who report directly to the student, and even the student's customers. For example, survey questions evaluating a sales training program might include:

* Did the representative open each customer dialogue with a product benefit statement, followed by a request to proceed?
* Was the representative able to analyze and describe to you the category of customers' objections as either valid, misinformation, or smokescreen?
* Did the representative use the appropriate model answer in response to each objection?
* Did the representative close each sales call with a request for purchase?
* If the prospect did not buy anything, did the representative end the call with specific future action steps?
* Did the representative complete call history records that include summaries of who, what, where, when, and why?

Level Four: Business Results
The fourth level in this model is to evaluate the business impact of the training program. The only scientific way to isolate training as a variable would be to isolate a representative control group within the larger student population, and then rollout the training program, complete the evaluation, and compare against a business evaluation of the non-trained group. Unfortunately, this is rarely done because of the difficulty of gathering the business data and the complexity of isolating the training intervention as a unique variable. However, even anecdotal data is worth capturing. Below are sample training programs and the type of business impact data that can be measured.

* Sales training. Measure change in sales volume, customer retention, length of sales cycle, profitability on each sale after the training program has been implemented.
* Technical training. Measure reduction in calls to the help desk; reduced time to complete reports, forms, or tasks; or improved use of software or systems.
* Quality training. Measure a reduction in number of defects.
* Safety training. Measure red uction in number or severity of accidents.
* Management training. Measure increase in engagement levels of direct-reports.

Employee Induction

Induction is a systematic process of familiarizing the new recruits to the organization functioning so that they become productive in the least possible time. Induction is the tool to orient the new recruits to various aspects of the organization and his /her job. The aim of the induction process is to help new employees make a smooth, positive adjustment to the workplace. Induction enables the new employee to gain familiarity with the work environment and to acquire a sense of belonging that will build a commitment to the organization. Recruitment is an expensive business. It takes time, money and effort to find the right people to join your team. What a pity it would be to jeopardize this by forgetting the importance of treating a new employee really well on joining you. Induction is the process, formal or informal that introduces newcomers to your organisation. Ideally it should take place as soon as possible after the new member has arrived. An effective induction process shortens the time it takes to get the new recruit up to speed. An induction process is not simply for new employees. The same benefits can be received by staff who have been promoted or transferred or those who have returned from a long period of absence. Furthermore you should be careful to include against long term temporary staff, who are entitled to the same training and development as permanent staff members. To not do so could harm your organisation and may be considered discriminatory. proper induction will give both the employees and the organisation the following benefits:

* Quickly assimilate the workplace culture, as well as
* Their knowledge of the products/services provided by the organisation and the systems in place. This in turn
* boosts confidence and improves
* work quality and productivity, as well as helping to
* reduce incidences of early leaving, which can be extremely costly to the organisation.
* As induction involves other staff other than the inductee, the process can also be useful in developing the skills of existing staff. As well as these benefits induction can ensure that
* Health and safety rules are properly disseminated to all staff and a good induction will help with an
* Investment in People application.

A successful induction process has three Goals -
* Helps new employees settle in;
* Helps new employees understand their responsibilities and what is expected of them;
* Ensures the employer receives the benefit of the new employee as quickly as possible.

An induction process should have three themes running through it. It should be;
* Flexible and interesting;
* Employee centered;
* Meets equal opportunities requirements.

Objectives of induction
Despite its particular term, induction is simply another part of the training process that organisations invest in their staff. Like any form of training it should have the objective of developing the relevant skills, knowledge and behaviour of employees that their posts require. Such training should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Action orientated, Relevant, Time bound).

Training is the teaching of vocational or practical and relates to specific useful skills. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges or polytechnics. Today it is often referred to as professional development. Training is the process of making proficient through instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment, including respiratory protection equipment, that is expected to be used and in the performance of assigned duties. Training is the systematic development of attitudes, knowledge and skills, behaviors pattern required by an individual in order to perform adequately a given task or job between actual and required human performance at work forms the basis of the need.

Difference between training and education
Formal education is usually thought of studies done in schools. The students range from the very youngest through college to those in adult education. There is also informal education or self-study, where adults read books, listen to tapes and learn through other media. Observing life itself is a form of education. The objective of classes or of self-education is usually to gain knowledge about facts, events, principles, concepts, and such. In some classes the student is required to demonstrate the memorization of facts and the association between concepts. In other classes, they must apply rules to solve problems. Testing concerns memorization and understanding, plus perhaps analytic and problem solving skills. On the other hand, formal training is usually concerned with gaining a skill. Training is done in trade schools, seminars, and business training classes. Learners of training are usually adults, although there are some classes to teach youngsters certain skills. Informal training is usually done through reading, viewing or listening to how-to material. Sometimes that material is then used as a guide, while the person applies the skills learned. For example, you may refer to a how-to book when trying to fix your plumbing at home. Verification of skills is best achieved by actually doing something in the real world. Sometimes tests given in trade schools check for knowledge, as opposed to skill. Often in corporate training sessions and in seminars, there is no verification that the learner had achieved the desired skills. Education is for the rounding-out of the individual and the good of society; it is general, provides background, and increases understanding Training is for the good of (in the case of TWI) production - it is a way to solve production problems through people; it is specific and helps people to acquire skill through use of what they have learned

In conclusion
Education concerns remembering facts and understanding concepts. It is usually taught in school, although self-study is possible. Training concerns gaining skills and taught either in trade schools or business training sessions.

Saturday, February 13, 2010

MBA in a day Ebook

A nice Ebook on MBA in a day. An overview of MBA. Good for students for getting MBA overview.

Download Ebook

Sunday, February 7, 2010

Comparative Market Analysis of Samsung Electronics Project Report


“All human actions have one of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion and desire”. As a human being the major cause to take over this project was reason. The reason is to accomplish my task, aim, and motive of enhancing my knowledge and to know more about the consumer durable industry. Consumer durables have become inseparable in this era of modernization and thus influence even the common men’s life. This is one of the fastest growing industry with an growth of about 8% every year. Invention and the launch of new technology is the most important tool of this industry. To maintain the quality of products provided to the customers the companies dealing in the consumer durable products has to undergo extensive study and research work. This project work is a small attempt to understand the dealer, retailer as well as the consumer behavior in regards to the colour television & Air conditioners and to find out the position of Samsung among its competitors.

This SIP project is being conducted on Consumer durables i.e. CTV & Air conditioner for (Samsung India Electronics private limited), I am focusing on Comparative Market and consumer behavior study of consumer durables of Samsung vis-à-vis its competitors i.e. Sony, LG, Videocon, Haier, Bluestar. In CTV & A.C segment. For this the Survey was conducted with a set of questionnaire containing the questions which helped in obtaining the desired information from the dealers & retailers. In the next segment of study the consumers has be targeted with a set of questionnaire for the desired information. Till date around 100 dealers And Retailers were approached in the Chandigarh and its neighboring districts i.e. SAS nagar mohali, zirakpur in Patiala and Panchkulla in hariyana state. The information was obtained through questionnaire as well as by the interview method. The copy of questionnaire is being attached with this report. The method of personnel interview was also adopted for those who were unwilling to give any information in writing. At present around 50 of such interviews have been conducted keeping in mind the requirements of the survey being conducted.
This report also includes the analysis of around 10 year’s sales data. This data with the help of Le square method is used to predict the future demand as well as the sales of Samsung.

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Saturday, February 6, 2010

Nestle Marketing Project Report


Nestle was promoted by Nestle Alimentana, Switzerland, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nestle Holdings Ltd., Nassau, Bahama Islands. Nestle is one of the oldest food MNC operating in India, with a presence of over a century. For a long time, Nestle India’s operations were restricted to importing and trading of condensed milk and infant food. Over the years, the Company expanded its product range with new products in instant coffee, noodles, sauces, pickles, culinary aids, chocolates and confectionery, dairy products and mineral water.
Nestle was incorporated as a limited company in 1959. In 1978, the Company issued shares to the Indian public to reduce its foreign holdings to 40%. Its name was changed from Foods Specialties Ltd. to the current name in 1981.The parent held 51% stake in the company as at 2000 end. It has FIPB approval to hike stake by 10% and has been gradually acquiring shares from the open market. Parent stake in the company as at 2001 end stood at 53.8%. The parent plans to continue hiking stake through open market purchases.

Nestle India Ltd, 51% subsidiary of Nestle SA, is among the leading branded food player in the country. It has a broad based presence in the foods sector with leading market shares in instant coffee, infant foods, milk products and noodles. It has also strengthened its presence in chocolates, confectioneries and other semi processed food products during the last few years. The company has launched Dairy Products like UHT Milk, Butter and Curd and also ventured into the mineral water segment in 2001. Nestle’s leading brands include Cerelac, Nestum, Nescafe, Maggie, Kitkat, Munch and Pure Life.

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Thursday, February 4, 2010

Identification of training needs of employees Project Report

A variety of operations keep businesses, especially large corporations, running efficiently and effectively. Common business operation divisions include (1) production, (2) marketing, (3) finance, and (4) human resource management.

Production includes those activities involved in conceptualizing, designing, and creating products and services. In recent years there have been dramatic changes in the way goods are produced. Today, computers help monitor, control, and even perform work. Flexible, high-tech machines can do in minutes what it used to take people hours to accomplish. Another important development has been the trend toward just-in-time inventory. The word inventory refers to the amount of goods a business keeps available for wholesale or retail. In just-in-time inventory, the firm stocks only what it needs for the next day or two. Many businesses rely on fast, global computer communications to allow them to respond quickly to changes in consumer demand. Inventories are thus minimized and businesses can invest more in product research, development, and marketing.

Marketing is the process of identifying the goods and services that consumers need and want and providing those goods and services at the right price, place, and time. Businesses develop marketing strategies by conducting research to determine what products and services potential customers think they would like to be able to purchase. Firms also promote their products and services through such techniques as advertising and personalized sales, which serve to inform potential customers and motivate them to purchase. Firms that market products for which there are always some demand, such as foods and household goods, often advertise if they face competition from other firms marketing similar products. Such products rarely need to be sold face-to-face. On the other hand, firms that market products and services that buyers will want to see, use, or better understand before buying, often rely on personalized sales. Expensive and durable goods—such as automobiles, electronics, or furniture—benefit from personalized sales, as do legal services such as the provision of insurance policies or tax preparation.

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Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Questionnaire on Training Need Analysis

Organisation’s Name:

Name of staff member:


1. Are you a new employee or a long-standing employee of the company?

2. How long have you been in your present job?

Confirmation of Current Duties
3. Do you have a duty statement for your job?
No (Go to Q 6)
4. Is your job accurately described in the duty statement?
Yes (Go to Q 14)

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Tuesday, February 2, 2010

PPT on Wage Determination

Here is a presentation/ppt on wage determination process.

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Monday, February 1, 2010

Telecommunication in India

The Indian telecom market has been displaying sustained high growth rates. Riding on expectations of overall high economic growth and consequent rising income levels, it offers an unprecedented opportunity for foreign investment. A combination of factors is driving growth in the telecom market, promising rich returns on investments.
India is the fourth largest telecom market in Asia after China, Japan and South Korea. The Indian telecom network is the eighth largest in the world and the second largest among emerging economies. The industry has witnessed an explosive growth in recent years. Teledensity has more than doubled from 2.3 per cent in 1999 to 4.8 per cent in 2002. However, the world average is almost 7.5 times and the Asian average 4.5 times the Indian average. The Indian telecom market size of over US $ 8 billion is expected to increase three fold by 2012. The expansion of the telecom industry in India has been fuelled by a massive growth in mobile phone users, which has reached a level of 10 million users in December 2002, an increase of nearly 100 per cent in 2002. This exponential growth of mobile telephony can be attributed to the introduction of digital cellular technology and decrease in tariffs due to competitive pressures. For the first time in India, the growth of cellular subscriber base has exceeded the fixed line subscriber base. However, cellular penetration is still 1 per cent as compared to world average of around 16 per cent.

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