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Friday, October 30, 2009

Time Management – Making The Most Out Of A Limited Resource

More than a few dozen times, people say to me, ‘I don’t know how you fit it all in!’ Sometimes even *I* don’t know how I fit it all in, to be honest. However, not only did I realize early that if I wanted to accomplish the things in my life ‘to do’ list, I’d better take control of my time. I have learned that time management is a huge issue with many of my clients. So, to help with this common problem, below are some tips to at least get you started on how to make the most out of your limited resource: Time.

Prioritize
What do you want to accomplish? Many people I work with have a HUGE list of what they want to do or of opportunities coming their way. It becomes so overwhelming for them that they find themselves doing NOTHING! Now, that defeats the purpose of
having such great opportunities at their feet, huh? So, make a list of all the things you would like to do or accomplish, or all the opportunities coming your way, and then prioritize them. For example, which of all the things you listed above is the very most important to you to make happen? Then that would be
#1. Continue this until you have come to the last one. The last item on your list should be what you could put off until last.

Make a list
I could not function through each day without my daily list! Not having my list is like walking into a Williams-Sonoma store without a shopping list. I guess it would be what walking into a toy store would be like for a kid. I don’t know where to start, there are so many wonderful things to see and do! So, usually the night before, I will write down the tasks that need attending to the next day. Generally my list is related to what I have on my marketing calendar, which helps me organize my entire month. Sometimes, I will create a weekly list, and then break it down from there. Determine what works best for you and put your list together. If you’re not used to writing down lists, just start with writing down a few important things.
Maybe you want to make some phone calls tomorrow; write that down. Perhaps you’ve been meaning to write an article; write it down.

Map it out
Having many things to do in the course of your day can also lead to getting nothing done. We’ve all been there; we have this small project to complete, another to start, we have to be done with either by noon to pick up the kids, then of course there is bed and relaxation time. But soon things aren’t getting done. Or, we want to start a new project (like start our own business!) and we have no CLUE how we’ll fit that in!



Here is a tip that I learned long ago to help: Print up a schedule that breaks down the day, by the hour, for a whole week. First shade out the time you sleep, then the time you spend on self-care to get ready for the day and for bed. Then
shade out family time; this includes meals, watching movies, helping with homework, etc. If you work, shade that time out, including commuting time. Also include self care for just you, such as exercise or relaxation time. Then look at the time you
have left. You may be amazed at what you find! One client realized that a HUGE chunk of her time was taken by her part-time job that included a long commute time, which prompted her to consider how she can change that.

Once you have mapped out your time, then determine what projects are important (from your priorities list) and determine how you will accomplish them.

Clean up
Is your work space clean and organized or cluttered and out of control? How is your filing system? Did you know that when your work area is cluttered and feeling out of control that YOU feel cluttered and out of control? So, look around and decide where you stand in this area. We’ve just added something NEW to add to your priority list, however! But the good news is you’ve also just investigated where you have time to work on projects! So, add this to your priority list and then schedule it into your calendar. However, because this can be overwhelming, pick a
specific area you want to work on. Let’s say you live in piles. On your priority list, break down that ‘big’ item of ‘clean office’ into small projects. For example, put ‘clean up one pile’ if you have piles of papers. If you want to organize your files, pick just one drawer at a time to focus on. If you have
allowed two hours to work on this project and you aren’t complete at the end of two hours, just pick up on the day you have again allotted time to work on that project!

These are just a few of the simplest ways to help you organize your time. I often use these as beginning steps for clients and they find they help in more ways than they ever imagined! From there, anything is possible! Now you can set up your goals for your life or business and actually get them done! Ok, now, time to stop reading and start getting organized.

Thursday, October 29, 2009

Tourism Industry in India project report

Tourism is an industry that operates on a massively broad scale: it embraces activities ranging from the smallest sea-side hotel; to air-lines, multi-national hotel chains and major international tour operators. Originally, non-traditional industries such as tourism emerged as a solution to strike a balance between ecology and industry. The tourism industry is now one of the largest sectors earning foreign exchange for the exchequer. In the face of such benefits, many countries have started assigning due weightage to the tourism industry in their national development agenda.

Tourism statistics:
=> Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries at present and holds the status of the world's no. 1 industry.
=> The tourism industry as a whole is presently estimated to earn over US$ 3.5 trillion worldwide.
=> The industry creates a job every 2.4 seconds with every one of those direct jobs creating another 11 indirect ones.
=>Spending on tourism amounts to 5%-10% of total consumer, spending in a year worldwide.
=> India's share of the total market is a pittance at 0.51%. The non-tourist countries like Malaysia and Indonesia get much more tourists than India.
=> However, the average duration of stay of foreign tourist in India is one of the highest in the world. On an average, it exceeds 27 days in the case of non-package tourists and is 14 days in the case of package tourists.
=> Tourism has the distinction of being the third largest export industry after gems and jewellery and readymade garments in India.
=> The Tourism industry's foreign exchange earnings in India are around $3.2 billion. Tourism is the highest foreign exchange earner if we consider the fact that net value addition in Gems and jewellery is less than 30 % whereas, in tourism it is more than 90 %.

Download full report below

tourism_industry project report

Tourism industry in india ppt

How Does Human Resource Management In The Workspace Affect Me?

How often do you find yourself saying: "I wish I knew how to learn more about this topic"

Well, we were listening! And this article is the result.

Today human resources management is opening up new horizons in many different offices around not only the United States, but the world. The reason for this is simply supply and demand. More savvy business owners –even of smaller companies, have understood the value of hiring professionals with experience working in HR. By doing so, and having HR representatives, companies have learned the importance of solid communication with their workforce

The fact is that Human Resource Management exists just for this purpose –to bridge the gap between staff and upper management. In doing so, compromises have been attained which preclude the need for unions or outside arbitration, and thus provide the services that employees feel is their right to have a company which is not so progressive, on the other hand, neglects HR and the philosophy that goes with it. The result is, employees abandon any thought of fidelity towards their employer in favor of businesses that reward their service in greater ways. Examples of this begin at the most basic level of appreciation. Certificates of recognition awarded on a monthly, bi-yearly, or even yearly basis, for instance, are all that many employees wish.



Now, pay close attention. What you're about to read will help you save hours of frustrating, wasted hunting, and let you hone in on some of the best material on this subject!

Of course, on a more pecuniary basis, more constant raises –whether structured and awarded based on time and/or merit, are always welcomed. Likewise, health benefits are probably the second most important factor, besides these well-earned raises.
The HR department is very often responsible for such aspects in the workspace.

Yet, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Surely, the aforementioned has been a part of the American workspace for decades. What staff in HR try to instill are programs and emotional support that make employees feel a part of a winning,
caring team –even a family.

This has been actualized by programs such as after-work softball and bowling leagues, on-site day care, free fitness memberships, and even after hours bar hopping and social events with the office staff and the boss. At work, people in HR have implemented office parties where before there were none, office pools, after-hour bingo (for charity or just for fun), and other such activities that create a cohesion within a workforce that makes it extremely difficult for an employee to ever consider leaving. It is just this feeling that managers and owners are looking for and why HR is so important.

This field is open to able-minded people of numerous backgrounds. There is training and certification which is available either in the office or at a local college. A fast growing field, the opportunities are currently expanding rapidly. Not only do people working in Human Resources enrich others, but they also benefit their own well-being in knowing that their job truly makes a difference in others' lives.

Developing Significant Human Resource Metrics

The processes of recruitment and selection are not as easy as they may seem. Any person who works for the human resource department of any company can certainly attest to this. This is because there is no definitive means of distinguishing which of the applicants for a particular position would be efficient on the job from the ones who would not be as efficient. If there were some sort of definitive system of discerning such, maybe companies all over the world would not experience such high turnover rates! This is why human resource departments of companies worldwide recognize the need to come up with human resource metrics, or HR metrics.

The term HR metrics, when you put it as simply as possible, refer to guidelines. These guidelines are measurable and are used by companies to come up with cost-effective strategies that are primarily aimed at the ensuring high-end performance of the workforce. The operative concept in HR metrics is employee
assessment. Unless you have years and years of recruitment and selection under your belt, it is actually quite hard to assess the efficiency of an applicant right off the bat. Without the proper training entailed in being a recruitment specialist, it
is close to impossible to assess applicants accurately. There are even times when even the most experienced HR specialist would have problems going about with accurate assessment for this!

This is precisely why HR metrics are very much needed by any personnel working for the HR department of a company. With the proper HR metrics system, the HR department of the company can determine which of the applicants would be worth investing on.



Gathering and creating a system of human resource metrics for any company is something that can be done easily; that is, as long as you have the proper guidelines to back you up. The most important thing here is to gather information about the employees. However, not all pieces of information would be used in developing human resource metrics at all. Weeding out the reliable pieces of information from those which are not is the ideal here. But then, at what figure should the gathering of human resource metrics be pegged? The recommended figure by the lot of recruitment specialists and experts here is actually pegged at ten. With this figure, you will actually come up with an effective system of assessing your company's workforce.

Another important thing to remember in the process of developing human resource metrics is that all aspects of the business should be considered. To name a few of these business aspects, these would be recruiting and retention, employee engagement, manager satisfaction, and the productivity of the workforce. There are other aspects and factors to consider, of course. But the underlying concept in ensuring the efficiency of the human resource metrics a company would use is actually very simple: the company should be very goal-oriented. When a company
knows what it wants to achieve, then distinguishing the aspects to be retained from the ones to let go would be certainly easier.

Recruitment As The Most Important Aspect Of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management theories focus on methods of recruitment and selection and highlight the advantages of interviews, general assessment and psychometric testing as employee selection processes. The recruitment process could be internal or external or could also be online and involves the stages of recruitment policies, advertising, job description, job application process, interviews, assessment, decision making, legislation selection and training (Korsten 2003, Jones
et al, 2006). Examples of recruitment policies within healthcare sector and business or industrial sectors could provide insights on how recruitment policies are set and managerial objectives are defined. Successful recruitment methods include a thorough analysis of the job and the labor market conditions and interviews as well as psychometric tests to determine the potentialities of applicants. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) also focus on interviews and assessment with emphasis on job analysis, emotional intelligence in new or inexperienced applicants and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Other techniques of selection that have been described include various types of interviews, in tray exercise, role play, group activity, etc.



Recruitment is almost central to any management process and failure in recruitment can create difficulties for any company including an adverse effect on its profitability and inappropriate levels of staffing or skills. Inadequate recruitment can lead to labor shortages, or problems in management decision making and the recruitment process could itself be improved by following management theories. The recruitment process could be improved in sophistication with
Rodgers seven point plan, Munro-Frasers five-fold grading system, psychological tests, personal interviews, etc. Recommendations for specific and differentiated selection systems for different professions and specializations have been given. A new national selection system for psychiatrists, anesthetists and dental surgeons has been proposed within the UK health sector.

Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process and requires management decision making and extensive planning to employ the most suitable manpower. Competition among business organisations for recruiting the best potential has increased focus on innovation, and management decision making and the selectors aim to recruit only the best candidates who would suit the corporate culture, ethics and climate specific to the organisation (Terpstra, 1994). This would mean that the
management would specifically look for potential candidates capable of team work as being a team player would be crucial in any junior management position. Human Management resource approaches within any business organisation are focused on
meeting corporate objectives and realization of strategic plans through training of personnel to ultimately improve company performance and profits (Korsten, 2003). The process of recruitment does not however end with application and selection
of the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. Despite a well drawn plan on recruitment and selection and involvement of qualified management team, recruitment processes followed by companies can face significant
obstacles in implementation. Theories of HRM may provide insights on the best approaches to recruitment although companies will have to use their in house management skills to apply generic theories within specific organizational contexts.

The Changing Face Of Human Resource Management Systems

Most businesses that run HRMS already understand how crucial it can be for streamlining human resource department functions. In the days before HRMS, managing human resources on a large scale was a daunting task marked by inefficiency and a paper trail that made file cabinet manufacturers an extremely happy lot. International businesses often had no central HR administration as the sharing of information, employee records, banking and payroll were only incorporated during first quarter tax assessment of the company as whole. Even some U.S. businesses
with multiple offices or locations ran completely separate HR departments, with reconciliation of company expenditures related to personnel never coming to fruition. Fortunately, HRMS have made all of these problems a thing of the past.

Over the last fifteen years, HRMS have made their mark on the corporate landscape. Stiff, unyielding in nature and low on functionality, the first HRMS applications were resource consuming monstrosities that required an advanced degree in
computer science to implement and operate. Company personnel would have to request HRMS data from administrators hired specifically to run the system. Instead of empowering HR departments, the earliest HRMS were more of a detriment to them.
Thankfully, the technology behind HRMS improved rapidly, giving way to the indispensable tools we are accustomed to today. HRMS have evolved to contain multiple, highly specialized tools for a variety of HR tasks. The ability to manage several aspects of human resources, from time and attendance to payroll and labor
distribution from one application has proven to be a valuable commodity in the business world.



One of the best developments in HRMS over the last several years has been modular packaging. At one time, HRMS were only available as a singular software entity, not a suite or series of applications. Small businesses were relegated to using the
same HRMS that large businesses used, with pricing and functionality that certainly favored the latter. Today, most HRMS offer scalable modules, allowing businesses to only purchase and implement the applications they need. This reduces not only the cost of the HRMS, but keeps system resources from having to deal with larger applications that run despite only a portion of their functions being utilized.

HRMS have become a standard application in the business community, and as more companies large and small discover the inherent value of the software, the competition among developers is likely to increase. HRMS are already some of the most functional and practical of all business software solutions, but as most developers will tell you, the best is yet to come.

Innovative Human Resource Management For Employee Productivity

Progressive and innovative managers realize the importance of increasing motivation and satisfaction among employees to boost their output. More than just pay incentives, worker output can be increased by providing tailor-fit benefits to meet their needs and motivating them with the quality of work life.

Increasing worker motivation and satisfaction can promote better productivity, produce effective, efficient and loyal workers, boost higher quality of work and make them stay longer in the business.

The nature of motivation and effectiveness among employees is the way by which modern human resource management is done. In fact, there is a direct relationship between progressive human resource management and effective management, which includes a work environment that is conducive towards achieving the goals
of the company as well as the employees.



Moreover, the success of your management is determined by your knowledge and skill in evaluating and identifying issues and concerns affecting employees as well as your ability to handle and resolve them with the help and satisfaction of workers.
Several factors need to be considered such as whether your workers know how you gauge and judge their performance; educational and training programs to encourage and promote personal development; trust and confidence on the knowledge and
capabilities of your employees; opportunity to allow your employees to make decisions and an open, honest and free communication with them.

Not only can these factors promote worker productivity, it can also help address or avoid problems with the management and employees as well.

Achieving good, quality employee performance depends on how much opportunity you provide them for their individual growth and achievement as well as recognition, responsibility and reward.

Remuneration is a primary reward you can give to your employees. Once the pay and benefits are properly established, it is important to use other ways to further boost your workers output. Increasing employee productivity is mainly based on
recognizing their desire to perform better on the job, assume responsibility as well as to aim higher and succeed. Moreover, the quality of work life also includes making your employees a part of the decision-making process.

However, there are instances when productivity may lower among employees who enjoy higher pay and more benefits. And not all worker productivity and motivation issues are solved by fat paychecks and promotions. Workers may even become more efficient
with fair pay commensurate to performance.

Providing tailor-fit benefits to meet the needs of employees is an important part in boosting the quality of work life among employees. Doing so can maximize labor costs that go to the worker as well as the return without necessarily increasing
overhead and operating expenses. For instance, instead of recruiting, hiring and training new employees, which can involve more time and money, you can motivate your existing employees by giving them opportunities for career growth and development such as training and enhancement. Efforts to satisfy individual needs
in your employees with flexible benefits help reinforce motivation. It may even be more valuable to an employee than just a mere pay raise.

Remember that needs vary from one employee to another and factors such as age, education, experience, martial status, family size, job fulfillment determine the appeal of a benefit. There should be proper planning, consultation, training and
implementation in order to achieve positive results.

Training Need Analysis Questionnaire

Stress Questionnaire

Training questionnaire

Personality Factor - Interview Questionnaire

Questions to Analyse the Personality Factor

List of Competency-Based Interview Questions

Job Description Questionnaire

Interview Questionnaire Guide

Interview Questionnaire

Interview Questions - more

Interview Questions

Recuitment & Selection Questionnaire

Exit Interview Questionnaire

Employee Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire for Staff

ESS Questionnaire for Officer

Employee Satisfaction Survey another Questionnaire

Employment Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire

Employee Satisfaction Survey Sample Questionnaire

Competency Survey Questionnaire

Behavioral Interview Questionnaire

Recruitment & Selection process project report

INTRODUCTION
The human resources are the most important assets of an organization. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contributions from people, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organization, therefore, they need to recruit people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so, they have to keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization in mind.

Recruitment is distinct from Employment and Selection. Once the required number and kind of human resources are determined, the management has to find the places where the required human resources are/will be available and also find the means of attracting them towards the organization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. All this process is generally known as recruitment. Some people use the term “Recruitment” for employment. These two are not one and the same. Recruitment is only one of the steps in the entire employment process. Some others use the term recruitment for selection. These are not the same either. Technically speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted (i.e., recruited).Formal definition of recruitment would give clear cut idea about the function of recruitment.

DEFINITIONS
Recruitment is defined as, “a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce.” Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.” Recruitment is a ‘linking function’-joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. It is a ‘joining process’ in that it tries to bring together job seekers and employer with a view to encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter.

In order to attract people for the jobs, the organization must communicate the position in such a way that job seekers respond. To be cost effective, the recruitment process should attract qualified applicants and provide enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselves out.

Thus, the recruitment process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.
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Leadership Theories Project Reoprt

Good leaders are made not born .If you have the desire and willpower ,you can become an effective leader.good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self study, education, training and experience. This guide will help you through that process. to inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know ,and ,do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills.

Before we get started, les define leadership. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A person carries out this process by applying his or her leadership attributes (belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills). Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader... it simply makes you the boss. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while, on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or an objective.

Bass' (1) theory of leadership states that there are threee basic ways to explain how people become leaders, the first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. tgis is THE TRAIT THEORY.

Crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is THE GREAT EVENT THEORY. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY. It is most widely acceplted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based.

When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader, he does not think about youe attributes. He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. He uses this observation to tell if you are an honourable and trusted leader, or a self serving person who misuses his or her authority to look good and get promoted. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their people.

The basis of good leadership is honourable character and selfless service to your organization . In your employees' eyes, Your leadership is everything you do that affects the organizations objectives and their well being. A respected leader concentrates on what she is [be] (beliefs and character), what she knows job, tasks, human nature), and what she does (implement, motivate, provide direction).

What makes a person follow a leader? People want to guided by those they respect and those who have a clear sense of direction. to gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

Leadership Theories Project Report

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Job Satisfaction Project Report

Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’s parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness o the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements).

The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to relate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1 – 5 scale 9where 1 represents “not all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”).

Definitions
Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2007) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.

Affect Theory
Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premises of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.e. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy compared to Employee B. this theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produces stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

Dispositional Theory
Another well known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timorthy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her/his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.

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Performance Appraisal with Case Study Project Report

An organization’s goals can be achieved only when people put in their best efforts. How to ascertain whether an employee has shown his or her best performance on a given job? The answer is performance appraisal. Employee assessment is one of the fundamental jobs of HRM. But not an easy one though. This chapter is devoted to a detailed discussion of the nature and process of conducting performance appraisal.

Meaning and Definition
In simple terms, performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individual's performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgement, versatility, health, and the like. Assessment should not be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed.

A formal definition of performance appraisal is:
It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.

A more comprehensive definition is:
Performance' appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee organization and society all benefit.
The second definition includes employees’ behaviour as part of the assessment. Behaviour can be active or passive--do something or do nothing. Either way behaviour affects job results. The other terms used for performance appraisal arc: performance rating, employee assessment. Employees performance review, personnel appraisal, performance evaluation employee evaluation and (perhaps the oldest of the terms used) merit rating. In a formal sense, employee assessment is as old as, the concept of management and in an informal sense; it is probably as old as mankind. Nor performance appraisal is done in isolation.


Performance Appraisal With Casestudy Project Report

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Competency-based Interview Questionnaire

PERSUASIVENESS: Reason effectively to convince the other party. Achieve goals and alter views by demonstrating shared benefits.
Behavioral statements:
1. Showing a cooperative attitude by convincing people that the decision is necessary (rather than imposing the decision).
2. Get an idea of colleagues' counter-arguments and resistance in advance - act on this in anticipation.
3. Relate the benefits of ideas or recommendations to the needs and interests of individuals and clients.
4. Present compelling arguments to support positions.

Questions:
• As a member of a staff department how have you gone about persuading line managers in the past? Give an example.
• What is the best suggestion you ever made that was accepted by your boss or colleagues? How did you present it?
• What is the best suggestion you ever made that was rejected by your boss or colleagues? Why was it rejected?
• In a discussion most people are usually convinced that their ideas are right. How successful are you in getting others to accept your point of view? Can you give an example?
• What do you think is the best way of 'selling' an unpopular idea? How do you go usually go about this? Example?

TEAM-WORK: Be active in realizing shared goals - even when you do not get a direct benefit.
Behavioral statements:
• Dealing well with different viewpoints as part of a (multidisciplinary) team.
• Work co-operatively with equals or other team members to set responsibilities.
• Share information, ideas and suggestions to accomplish mutual goals.
• Support team decisions even if not in total agreement.

Questions:
• Can you recall a situation when you completely disagreed with the way your team was working? What did you do then?
• Have you ever been a member of a team that broke up because it was im-possible to work with one another? What was your position?
• Do you work together with colleagues at the moment? How do you deal with conflicts / disagreements / misunderstandings in this group?


PLANNING / ACTION: Deploy human and other resources to meet targets and standards. Do it on time.
Behavioral statements:
• Plan work so that it gets done on time.
• Formulate work objectives clearly including a timetable and priorities.
• Getting thing done by focusing on the implementation.
• Anticipate and act to compensate for potential risks and problems.

Questions:
• Have you ever had to readjust a timetable due to unforeseen circumstances? How did you go about it? Examples, please.
• What are your department's long and short term plans? Have they been put into writing?
• What were your work objectives last year? Were they achieved?
• Can you give an example of how your department arrives at operational plans to adjust to new situations?
• How did you plan your time at work over the past week?
• Describe a normal working day or week for me. How do you plan your daily activities?


LEADERSHIP: Set challenges within own parameters. Then coach and motivate staff to realize these. Welcome and delegate responsibility. Be forceful when appropriate.
Behavioral statements:
• Practice and stimulate open and two way communication including frank and honest feedback to co-workers.
• Show interest and give support and coaching when necessary.
• Involve subordinates in issues of company and department policy.
• Develop ideas to improve departmental operations and take the appropriate actions to implement change and ensure group acceptance.

Questions:
• Have you over had a subordinate who did not perform as well as you thought he should? What did you do about it?
• Have you ever had to arbitrate between two staff members who were unable to work together? How did you get them to cooperate?
• How often do you hold meetings with your staff? Why not more/less often? How did you prepare for the last meeting?
• Have you ever involved your staff in issues of company policy? How did you go about this?
• Have you ever lead a work group or project team whose members were not lower-placed than yourself in the organizational hierarchy? How did you manage this?
• Has it ever happened that targets were not met while you were in charge or had final responsibility? What did you do then?

PROBLEM ANALYSIS: Identify problems; recognize significant information; gather and coordinate relevant data; diagnose possible causes.
Behavioral statements:
• Take well planned steps to gather and organize data for diagnostic purposes.
• Distinguish the grade of problems and to indicate major issues.
• Foresee problems and to judge their relevance.
• Ask for questions and ensure they are answered.

Questions:
• Describe a significant problem that you were confronted with during the past year? What steps did you take to assemble and organize data? What do you consider to be the cause of the problem?
• Unforeseen problems sometimes arise. Have you ever been surprised by an unexpected problem?
• Have you ever been confronted with a situation which turned out to be very different (and perhaps more complicated) than you had at first judged?
• Sometimes a problem seems to have been solved when in fact only part of a far more extensive, underlying problem has been dealt with. Have you ever experienced a situation like this?
• Can you describe a problem that you were unable to solve?

ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATION: Set and meet the highest standards. Be discontented with average performance.

Behavioural statements:
• Set high standards and seek continuous improvements.
• Input more than the required effort to realize predetermined targets.
• Formulate realistic and challenging tasks for yourself and the team members.
• Maintain quality and urgency towards desired results.

Questions:
• When have you aimed for perfection? Concrete examples please.
• What do you demand of yourself in your work? Do you demand the same things of your staff?
• If you have recently had to evaluate a staff member or colleague on job performance, what for you was the difference between a good worker and a poor one?
• Can you remember ever demanding of others too much or too little?
• Have you ever worked in a team? What did you expect of the other team members?
• When have you been satisfied with your work? Can you give an example of a situation in which you were unable to come up to your own standards? What did you do about it?

Talent Management Project Report

This new age economy, with its attendant paradigm shifts in relation to the human capital, in terms of its acquisition, utilisation, development and retention, has placed a heavy demand on today’s HR professionals. Today HR is expected to identify potential talent and also comprehend, conceptualise and implement relevant strategies to contribute effectively to achieve organisational objectives. Hence a serious concern of every HR manager in order to survive this ‘War for Talent’, is to fight against a limited and diminishing pool of qualified available candidates to replace valuable employees when they leave, dramatically underscoring the difficulty to attract, motivate and retain the best employees in an organisation. To analyse the reasons, we first need to understand what “TALENT” means. People have different views and definitions. According to Leigh Branham, vice president, consulting service at Right Management Consultants and author of the book, “Keeping People Who Keep You in Business”, a talent is not rare and precious. Everyone has talent – too many to possibly name all. Talent is behavior; things we do more easily than the next person. We speak of “natural born talent” but those with a gift, knack, ability or flair for something can refine and develop that talent through experience. Talent, however, cannot be taught. As someone once said, “you can teach a turkey to climb a tree, but it is easier to hire a squirrel”.
Vice President, HR of Seagram, Mr. Gopi Nambiar, says talent can be best described as a combination of abilities and attitudes. The real trick is to match the right motivated talents to the right role, individually and collectively, harnessing and harmonizing this crucial attribute to achieve the objectives of your company.
Today, companies have become fiercely competitive when it comes to attracting and retaining talent. According to Branham, 75 per cent of the senior executives admit that employee retention is a major concern today, the obvious reason being the ‘increasing rate of turnover’. This dynamically changing and volatile demand-supply equation with such erratic attrition trends and cut throat competition has led organisations to focus on mechanisms pertaining to attracting and retaining talent. It is an accepted truth that turnover will happen and companies need to device a strategy to curb unprecedented turnover from affecting organisational success.
As the Director, HR (Asia) of Bausch & Lomb, Mr. P.G. George declares, achieving zero percent turnover is neither realistic nor desirable. People tend to seek change for a variety of reasons—more money, better benefits, the appearance of a greener pasture- and this has been a practice from the very beginning. Then, what is it that has really changed?
Despite intense competition being the key to market development and success, organisations have failed to identify some of the major reasons which highlight why ‘good performers’ leave. In his study, Branham clearly states that one major reason why people leave their organisation is because of the organisation’s failure to bring about a correlation between pay and performance. Human Resource experts in the industry believe matching the right blend of talent with the right job profile can lead to superior performance.
The present scenario with abundant opportunities has triggered a wave of employees, perpetually “on the move”, forever seeking better opportunities whenever, wherever and however they can. What is behind the restlessness of these hard to keep employees? By focusing on productivity, organisations are realising that it is imperative to hire employees who can do the job and be successful at it. The organisation no longer wants to just hire to hire, in fact they are striving to find the right people, bring them into the organisation and retain their services. One of the critical functions of HR is a sound Human Resource Planning through which they are able to project the demand for human resource and thereafter formulate strategies for acquiring them. As the leading HR heads of the country point out, the solution is not just about finding the correct retention mechanisms , but it starts from the very beginning by devising ways to acquire the right people for the right jobs.


Talent Management Project Report

Questionnaire to evaluate Employee Engagement

HR teams should do regular surveys with samples of employees, and seek feedback on their level of Engagement. Some of the useful questions that can determine the engagement level:

1. Do you know what is expected of you at work?
2. Do you have the materials and equipment you need to do your work right?
3. At work, do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day?
4. In the last fifteen days, have you received recognition or praise for doing good work?
5. Does your supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about you as a person?
6. Is there someone at work who encourages your development?
7. At work, do your opinions seem to count?
8. Does the mission/purpose of your company make you feel your job is important?
9. Are your associates (fellow employees) committed to doing quality work?
10. Do you have a friend at work?
11. In the last six months, has someone at work talked to you about your progress.
12. In the last year, have you had opportunities at work to learn and grow?

Talent Management

Talent management
A conscious, deliberate approach undertaken to attract, develop and retain people with the aptitude and abilities to meet current and future organisational needs.

Talent management involves individual and organisational development in response to a changing and complex operating environment. It includes the creation and maintenance of a supportive, people oriented organisation culture.

Importance of talent management
Like human capital, talent management is gaining increased attention. Talent management (TM) brings together a number of important human resources (HR) and management initiatives.

Organisations that formally decide to "manage their talent" undertake a strategic analysis of their current HR processes. This is to ensure that a co-ordinated, performance oriented approach is adopted.

Quite often, organisations adopting a TM approach will focus on co-ordinating and integrating:
* Recruitment - ensuring the right people are attracted to the organisation.
* Retention - developing and implementing practices that reward and support employees.
* Employee development - ensuring continuous informal and formal learning and development.
* Leadership and "high potential employee" development - specific development programs for existing and future leaders.
* Performance management - specific processes that nurture and support performance, including feedback/measurement.
* Workforce planning - planning for business and general changes, including the older workforce and current/future skills shortages.
* Culture - development of a positive, progressive and high performance "way of operating".

An important step is to identify the staff or employees (people and positions) that are critical to the organisation. They do not necessarily have to be senior staff members. Many organisations lost a lot of "organisational knowledge" in the downsizing exercises of a few years ago. The impact of the loss was not immediately apparent. However, it did not take long for many companies to realise their mistake when they did not have people with the knowledge and skills to either anticipate or solve problems that arose.

The current discussions about skill shortages and the ageing population are also helping organisations to focus on the talent management issue. It may not be possible to simply go out and recruit new people to meet operational needs. Many leading companies have decided to develop their own people, rather than trying to hire fully skilled workers.

In summary, every organisation should be implementing talent management principles and approaches.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Attrition Rates Project Report


In the best of worlds, employees would love their jobs, like their coworkers, work hard for their employers, get paid well for their work, have ample chances for advancement, and flexible schedules so they could attend to personal or family needs when necessary. And never leave.

But then there's the real world. And in the real world, employees, do leave, either because they want more money, hate the working conditions, hate their coworkers, want a change, or because their spouse gets a dream job in another state. So, what does all that turnover cost? And what employees are likely to have the highest turnover? Who is likely to stay the longest?



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