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Monday, December 28, 2009

Project on Performance Appraisal

Meaning and definition of performance appraisal and its objectives
In simple terms, appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individual’s performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality, and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health, and the like. Assessment should not be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed.

DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:
A formal definition of performance appraisal is:
“It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.”

A more comprehensive definition is:
“Performance appraisal is a formal, structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee, organization, and society all benefit.”

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Saturday, December 26, 2009

Human Resources Recruitment and Retention Strategy - Ebook

During times of high unemployment, employers have the luxury of selecting employees from an abundant supply of candidates. However, as Barbara Moses states, times have changed, and “employees know it’s a seller’s market” (2006).

In the lean and mean 1980’s and 90’s, employees were advised to be prepared for five or more careers. They were also told there is no such thing as lifelong career commitments. This may have been somewhat short-sighted. The result of this advice has been the demise of employee loyalty and non-existent succession planning strategies. We now have industries with well-educated, experienced but aging professionals who made it through the lean and mean decades who are now approaching possible retirements. Therefore, organizational success today and in the future will largely depend upon attracting, selecting, deploying, developing, managing, rewarding and retaining talent.

Successful recruitment and retention strategies include knowing and meeting the needs of employees, paying attention to corporate culture and employment branding, developing a diverse workforce, and ensuring strong leadership.

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Ebook on Motivation - 101 Motivational Quotes

Introduction
“People often say that motivation doesn't last. Well, neither does bathing - that's why we recommend it daily” – Zig Ziglar

By definition motivation means that which motivates, that which makes us take action towards our desired goals and which gives purpose and direction to those actions. Now we all know that very often we lose our motivation and we allow procrastination to dominate our life. With out our motivation we stop taking action and doing the things we really want to do, we stop achieving the things we really want to achieve and we stop believing we are capable of becoming who ever we want to be.

The secret to beating procrastination is that we need to keep motivated. Every day we must do something, anything that gets us motivated, whether it’s listening to your favourite song, going for that morning run or simply reading some quotes. Every day we must motivate ourselves because when we are motivated we have energy, we have ideas and we have dreams and we pursue those dreams with our unbounded faith that we will achieve them and more.

To help you stay motivated I have compiled some of the best motivating quotes from famous speakers and historical figures. Read just a few each day and contemplate the meaning and philosophy behind each quote. Pick your favourites, the ones that resonate with in you and stir up a desire to get moving and take action. Write them down and place them where you can see them each day – at home, at work, in your car, in your wallet, in your purse, in your briefcase, anywhere and everywhere. That way at any time wherever you are and whatever you are doing you will always have your daily dose of motivation.

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FACTORS AFFECTING ATTRITION AND STRATEGIES OF RETENTION

Why Do People leave Jobs?
There are various factors that affect an individual’s decision to leave a job. While an employee’s leaving the job is considered attrition by one organization, it is looked at as talent acquisition by the new organization and to the individual it means a career move, economic growth and enhanced quality of life/convenience or closeness to family etc. Hence, what is a problem for one may be an opportunity for another.

This short note examines the key reasons for attrition and explores ‘what enhances retention’ as well as outlines some of the factors that can control attrition. It also touches up those factors that are beyond ones control.

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Team Working Techniques and Team Working Effectiveness Project Report

ABSTRACT
Different techniques and skills are used to achieve an organisation’s goals and objectives. One of the techniques used by organisations is team working. This research paper presents an empirically based case study on an organisation’s team working techniques and also investigates the effectiveness of team working in the men’s apparel department. The organisation that has been examined for the purpose of this research is Company Z, a chain of departmental stores situated in Mumbai. Questionnaires were developed and sent to both, the staff and managers to analyse the team working effectiveness and techniques adapted to form and develop teams respectively. Structured interviews were also conducted among five (5) managers to understand the organisation’s rational for team working and techniques adapted to form and develop teams. Finally conclusions and recommendations have been presented in the end and areas for further research have also been suggested.

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Friday, December 25, 2009

Knowladge Management - HRM project Report

Introduction
Knowledge Management refers to a range of practices and techniques used by organizations to identify, represent and distribute knowledge, know-how, expertise, intellectual capital and other forms of knowledge for leverage, reuse and transfer of knowledge and learning across the organization.

Knowledge management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific business outcomes such as improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation. Of recent years Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) practice has arisen by which individuals apply KM practice to themselves, their role in the organization and their career development,

Knowledge management is an evolving discipline. While knowledge transfer (an aspect of knowledge management) has always existed in one form or another, for example through on-the-job discussions with peers, formally through apprenticeship, the maintenance of corporate libraries, professional training and mentoring programmes, and — since the late twentieth century — technologically through knowledge bases, expert systems, and other knowledge repositories, knowledge management programs claim to consciously evaluate and manage the process of accumulation, creation and application of knowledge which is also referred to by some as intellectual capital.

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Labour Welfare Project Report

Social Security and Labour Welfare in India: A review
Social security is one of the pillars on which the structure of a welfare state rests, and it constitutes the hard core of social policy in most countries. It is through social security measures that the state attempts to maintain every citizen at a certain prescribed level below which no one is allowed to fall. It is the security that society furnishes through appropriate organization, against certain risks to which its members are exposed (ILO, 1942). Social security system comprises health and unemployment insurance, family allowances, provident funds, pensions and gratuity schemes, and widows’ and survivors’ allowances. The essential characteristics of social insurance schemes include their compulsory and contributory nature; the members must first subscribe to a fund from which benefits could be drawn later. On the other hand, social assistance is a method according to which benefits are given to the needy persons, fulfilling the prescribed conditions, by the government out of its own resources.

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Attitude - HRM Project Report

INTRODUCTION
Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are positive, negative or neutral views of an "attitude object": i.e. a person, behaviour or event. People can also be "ambivalent" towards a target, meaning that they simultaneously possess a positive and a negative bias towards the attitude in question.

Attitudes come from judgments. Attitudes develop on the ABC model (affect, behavioral change and cognition). The affective response is a physiological response that expresses an individual's preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication of the intention of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity to form an attitude. Most attitudes in individuals are a result of observational learning from their environment. The link between attitude and behavior exists but depends on human behavior, some of which is irrational. For example, a person who is in favor of blood transfusion may not donate blood. This makes sense if the person does not like the sight of blood, which explains this irrationality.

THIS PROJECT YOU WILL GO THROUGH- TYPES OF ATTITUDE, HOW TO CHANGE IT,HOW TO DEAL WITH IT, NEW METHODS FOR HAVING POSITIVE ATTITUDE AND ALL THAT STUFF..................>>>


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Thursday, December 24, 2009

Competency Mapping at Tata Power - Project Report

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The core business of TATA Power Company is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. The Company operates in two business segments: Power and Other. The Power segment is engaged in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. The other segment includes electronic equipment, broadband services, project consultancy and oil exploration.
TPC recognizes the need to have a technologically proficient and business oriented human resource to successfully address the challenges and growth opportunities.
Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the activities. Training and development refer to the importing of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee.

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Motivation Project Report

Here is full project report on Motivation including ppt. Hope it'll help you in your project.
please leave comments.

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Employee Engagement Notes

Here are notes on employee engagement.

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Tuesday, December 22, 2009

Synopsis on Employee Retention

Definition:
“Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time.”
Employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage competent employee to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time. Corporate are facing a lot problem in employee retention these days. Hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer. But retention is even more important than hiring. There is no dearth of opportunities for a talented person. There are many organizations which are looking for such employees.

If a person is not satisfied by the job he is doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In today’s environment it becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees. The reason may be personal or professional. These reasons should be understood by the employer and should be taken care of. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and adopting many strategies for employee retention.
There are various HR issues the a corporate deals
1. EMPLOYEE TURNOVER
2. ATTRITION
These basic needs other than routine and future HR tasks are to be taken care of on Priority before it becomes late.

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Monday, December 21, 2009

Project Report on Hospitality Industry

Objectives of Project
=> To analyze the role and need of Hospitality & Catering as it is an upcoming era of Hospitality.
=> To know how Hospitality can be beneficial in growth of Indian economy.
=> To know about the emergence of Hospitality industry in International market.
=> To understand the nature of services rendered and various facilities provided by Hospitality Industry.
=> To know about the recent trends & services of main Hospitality players in India.
=> To understand the future prospects and challenges faced by Hospitality Industry activity.

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Project Report on Hospital/Healthcare


Health care means a wide and intensive form of services, which will be related to well being of human beings. Health Care is a social sector. Health Care services are provided at state level with the help of central government.
Health care is a wide and intensive industry, which covers Hospitals, Health Insurances, Medical software, Health- equipments and Pharmacy in it.

Major inputs of health care industry
The major inputs of health care industries are as listed below:
I. Hospitals
II. Medical insurance
III. Medical software
IV. Health equipments

Overview of health care sector in India:
India’s healthcare sector has made impressive strides in recent years. It has transformed to a US$ 17 billion industry and is surging ahead with an annual growth rate of 13% a year. The healthcare industry in India expected to grow in size to Rs 270,000 core by 2012. The healthcare industry employs over four million people, which makes it one of the largest service sectors in the economy of our country.

Healthcare is dependent on the people served; India’s huge population of a billion people represents a big opportunity. People are spending more on healthcare. The rise in literacy rate; the higher levels of income; and an increased awareness through the deep penetration of media, has constituted to greater attention being paid to health. India has a very low density of doctors. Infant mortality is amongst the highest in India.


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Compensation Management Notes

MEANING OF WAGE/ COMPENSATION PAYMENT:

Wage is a monetary payment made by the employer to his employee for the work done or services rendered. It is a monetary compensation for the services rendered. A worker may be paid Rs. 100 per day or Rs. 4500 per month. This is wage payment. The worker gives his services and takes payment called wage payment. Industrial workers are paid remuneration for their services in terms of money called wage payment. Wages are usually paid in cash at the end of one day, one month or one week. Money wage is the monetary compensation or price paid by the employer to his employee for the services rendered. Such compensation is also called wage or salary or reward given by an organisation to a person in return to a work done.

Generally, compensation payable to an employee includes the following three components:
=> Basic compensation for the job (wage/salary)
=> Incentive compensation for the employee on job
=> Supplementary compensation paid to employees (fringe benefit and employee services)


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Employee retention Project Report

Executive Summary

In recent times, the HR Department of any company has been seen as a very productive department contributing towards the Organizational goals and objectives. With this, the expectations of management have grown up to a greater extent. Now, the HR is not just seen as a department for recruiting people but it’s mainly known for making the work enjoyable for every employee. HR is also known for keeping employees motivated at all times, in training them, helping in employees personal and professional lives and maintaining a balance in between and alas in retaining them. Therefore, the work of HR department has become tougher.

Beside various other HR systems and processes, the retention is known as an important tool for any Organization and almost every Organization is spending more on this area than recruiting new employees or anywhere else.

The Indian Economy has become very sound in last five years. The Indian Government has permitted to enter Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in India with which the opportunities for professionals have arisen. As a result, Industry has seen a rising attrition ratio in almost any form of Business. Therefore retention of the existing employees is both important in terms of economics and performance of human resources. In actual, the retention process starts at the time when any employee is separated from the Organization but I feel it starts during the interview process when a successful candidate is converted into an employee.

The important processes of retention are interview process, internal induction, training, final placement, organizational internal environment, people working in various department, colleagues, immediate supervisor, department head, compensation and benefits, HR policy, performance assessment, internal growth.


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Sunday, December 20, 2009

Factors Influencing Attrition in the growing Economies - synopsis

INTRODUCTION

In the recent decades the Indian industry has changed its outlook. The employment scene has changed its appearance. The factors like skill sets, job satisfaction drive the employment and not just the money. The employer hence faces the heat of continuous employee turnover. Continuous efforts are made by organisations to control the employee turnover rate as it directly affects the performance of the organisation as many key people leave the organisations for various reasons at crucial points. This turnover is normally known as ATTRITION.

Defining attrition:
A reduction in the number of employees through retirement, resignation or death.

Defining Attrition rate:
The rate of shrinkage in size or number.

In the best of worlds, employees would love their jobs, like their coworkers, work hard for their employers, get paid well for their work, have ample chances for the advancement, and the flexible schedules so they could attend to personal or family needs as and when necessary.
But then there’s the real world. And in the real world, employees do leave, either because they want more money, hate their co-workers, want a change or because their spouse gets a dream job in another state. So, what does the turnover cost? And which employees are likely to have the highest turnover? Who is likely to stay the longest?


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Saturday, December 19, 2009

Nimbooz Survey Project Report

LAUNCH

March 2009 PepsiCo India has launched its packaged nimbu paani ‘Nimbooz by 7Up’. PepsiCo will launch its new lime-lemon drink Nimbooz this month. The drink which will be an addition to its 7-up category with real lemon juice, no fizz and no artificial flavors, will be available in three packaging formats of 200 ml returnable glass bottles, 350 ml PET and 200 ml tetra packs, priced at Rs 10, Rs 15 and Rs 10, respectively. will be available in 200 ml returnable glass bottles and 350 ml PET packets communication tag line is ‘Ekdum Asli Indian’, and the integrated communication pro-gramme includes TV commercial, press, radio etc.

BUSINESS OBJECTIVE
• Increase market share in terms of both sale and customer base.
• Maximization of Profit.
• Creating strong brand image

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
• To find out the awareness level of consumers about 7up Nimbooz
• To identify the attitude of customers towards 7up Nimbooz and its competitors.
• Post-launch market evaluation of 7up Nimbooz.
• Identify areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of consumers.


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Friday, December 18, 2009

Biomedical Waste Management Project Report

AN OVERVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

A hospital produces many types of waste material. Housekeeping activity generates considerable amount of trash, and the visitors and others bring with them food and other materials which must in some way be disposed off. In addition to the waste that is produced in all resident buildings, hospital generate pathological waste viz. blood soaked dressings, carcasses and similar waste. These waste materials must be suitably disposed of immediately lest they purify, emit foul smells, act as a source of infection and disease, and become a public health hazard. While in developing countries most of the public health problems are due to industrialization, in developing countries many of the public health problems are also related to defective sewage and waste disposal.

Many of our hospitals neither have a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The disposal of waste is exclusively entrusted to the junior most staff from the housekeeping department without any supervision, and even pathological wastes are observed to be disposed off in the available open ground around hospitals with scant regard to aesthetic and hygiene considerations.
‘Waste” can be defined as any discarded unwanted residual matter arising from the hospitals or activities related to the hospitals. “Disposal” covers the total process of collecting, handling, packing, storage, transportation and final treatment of wastes.


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CRM - Taj VS Orchid project report

Section I

1) Conceptual Framework for CRM
2) Key CRM Principles
3) Customer Relationship Life Cycle
4) The Emergence of CRM Practice
5) CRM Formation Process
6) Business Objectives from CRM
7) CRM and Related Concepts
8) Technological Tools for CRM
9) Existing CRM Solutions
10) Present CRM Alternatives
11) eCRM
12) Categories of CRM Solutions
13) Organising for CRM
14) Financial Framework for CRM
15) CRM in Select Services
16) Case Example
17) Case Study: Hospitality Industry
18) Conclusion
19) Recommendations

Section II
1) The Hotel Industry
2) Industry Concepts
3) Hotel Concepts
4) Indian Hotels Company Limited
5) Industry Characteristics
6) Tourist Arrivals
7) Segmentation of Hotels
8) India and the World Market
9) Career Options
10) Taj Lands End
11) The Orchid

Section III
1) Comparative Analysis of Taj vs The Orchid which includes Data Interpretation and Recommendation

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Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Healthcare and Hospital Industry Notes


Healthcare industry is a wide and intensive form of services which are related to well being of human beings. Health care is the social sector and it is provided at State level with the help of Central Government. Health care industry covers hospitals, health insurances, medical software, health equipments and pharmacy in it.

Right from the time of Ramayana and Mahabharata, health care was there but with time, Health care sector has changed substantially. With improvement in Medical Science and technology it has gone through considerable change and improved a lot.

The major inputs of health care industries are as listed below:
I. Hospitals
II. Medical insurance
III. Medical software
IV. Health equipments

Health care service is the combination of tangible and intangible aspect with the intangible aspect dominating the intangible aspect. In fact it can be said to be completely intangible, in that, the services (consultancy) offered by the doctor are completely intangible. The tangible things could include the bed, the décor, etc. Efforts made by hospitals to tangiblize the service offering would be discussed in details in the unique characteristics part of the report.


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Saturday, December 12, 2009

Workforce Diversity Project Reoprt

INTRODUCTION

Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, the world is submerged in a wide range of demographic trends which have the potential to radically change the demographic, cultural and ethical mixture of the population in many countries within just a few decades.

Top managers often say that their company's people are its most important asset. In a tight job market and a global economy a company that puts people first - regardless of their race, religion, gender, age, sexual preference, or physical disability - wins.

Companies, especially big multinational players which have to deal with these changes, are growingly forced to react. Employees, once a homogenous group in many countries, are increasingly diverse and need to be integrated within and into working environments. Diversity can present an immense source of opportunities but it can also mean the opposite, a big threat.

Diversity management is a managerial approach in response to these trends and can help companies to effectively and efficiently manage their personnel diversity, i.e. personnel made up of diverse and multifaceted people. The text argues that a diverse workforce can be regarded as an instrument of sales promotion, a marketing tool to induce customers to buy certain products or services.

To be successful at creating workforce diversity program involves attracting and retaining the highest quality individuals in the talent pool. For the HR professional it means looking beyond obvious recruitment methods and venues for good people, then learning how to manage human potential sensitively. It requires an ever-increasing awareness of how people from different backgrounds deal with authority, communication, overall business etiquette, and relate to their communities of affiliation.

Promoting workforce diversity is a process that takes place in many stages and on many levels. It requires HR professionals first to recruit a competent and qualified staff, then to accommodate individual needs within the context of the work team and the organization.

In today's world of cultural diversity, our business can't thrive unless we implement a workforce diversity initiative. Besides tapping into the unique abilities and talents of people from different backgrounds, we can improve our image in the community by opening up a place of business to anyone regardless of race, color, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation and disability.


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CSR at BPCL Project Report

Executive Summary
The project enables me to know various aspects of Corporate Social Responsibilities and its importance and steps taken by Bharat Petroleum towards social activities.
BPCL is a Model Corporate Entity with Social Responsibility and also builds a powerful partnership with society for ‘Sustainable Development’.

As a corporate responsibility, today 37 villages across India have been adopted by BPCL. This includes making substantial investments for nearly a decade and a half in them to make them fully self reliant, providing them fresh drinking water, sanitation facilities, medical facilities, enhancing their income standards by imparting vocational training and agricultural innovations. However, BPCL also firmly believes that the only vehicle for raising the villagers from their present state is by educating the young and the old, a focus on providing grants for opening schools and opening adult literacy camps as well. A Herculean task indeed, which BPCL recognized and thus even sought assistance from NGO's working around these centers in fulfilling its dream, which to many of BPCL employee's still remains incomplete, on account of the large magnitude of work necessary in completion.

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Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Entereprenureship Devlopment Notes

Notes on entreprenureship devlopment.

FACTORS INFLUENCING ENTREPRENEUR
What makes an entrepreneur create a successful new business? Researchers, sociologists,
economists have been exploring several avenues – characteristics of an entrepreneur, lifepath
circumstances of an individual, environmental factors & finally they examined the
desirability & feasibility of becoming an entrepreneur which also affects the decision to
engage in entrepreneurship. Following three basic factors are mainly responsible for an
individual’s desirability & feasibility of becoming an entrepreneur.
· Personal Characteristics
· Life-Path Circumstance
· Environmental Factors

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Employee Retention in IT Industry

A nice PPT/PDF Document on Employee retention in IT Industry.

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Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Transactional Analysis Questionnaire with Interpretation

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE
There is no time limit to this questionnaire. It will probably take around ten minutes to complete. The more spontaneous and honest you can be, the more accurate the results probably will be.
If you agree more than you disagree with a statement, mark a plus (+) in the box.
If you disagree more than you agree, mark a minus (-) in the box.

1. Teenagers would be better off if they tried harder to understand and utilise the experiences of older people.

2. I enjoy fast driving.

3. Generally I manage to keep a calm appearance even when I am all upset inside.

4. There are too few people nowadays with enough courage to stand up for what is right.

5. People who tend to be “Bossy” actually lack self-confidence although they may not realise this.

6. I do not like it when people are not clear about what I say and ask me to repeat.

7. Effective leadership means to enable people to give the best of themselves rather then seek the best for themselves.

8. There is too much sex and violence on TV nowadays.

9. In my opinion, it is healthy to freely discuss sex, bodily functions, intimacy, etc.
10. I find it difficult to stick to a diet, to quit smoking, etc.

11. In my opinion, speed limits should be strongly enforced.

12. Parents tend to be too permissive nowadays.

13. I believe that absolute openness and honesty with others is possible.

14. In my opinion, 95% of the important life decisions are based on feelings.

15. Too many people nowadays allow others to push them around too much.

16. Although most people are not, I seem to be quite comfortable with a long period of silence.

17. I can recall situations where, as a child, other people made me feel ashamed.

18. Sometimes children need to be slapped on the buttocks for their own good.

19. We need more rather than less censorship in the movies, TV, magazines, etc.

20. Even with strangers, I seldom feel bored, impatient or lonely.

21. I know that sometimes I ought to eat and drink less than I do.

22. The good opinion of others is important.

23. My parents encouraged me to explore and learn things for myself.

24. I get uncomfortable when something unexpected happens.

25. Even when one feels life is not worth living, no one is justified in committing suicide.

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Thursday, December 3, 2009

Personality Types & MBTI

Personality Type or Psychological Type are terms most commonly associated with the model of personality development created by Isabel Briggs Myers (aka Briggs Meyer, Meyer Briggs, Briggs Myers ) the author of the world's most widely used personality inventory, the MBTI or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ® Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed their model and inventory around the ideas and theories of psychologist Carl Jung, a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and a leading exponent of Gestalt personality theory.

Beginning in the early 1940's, Myers & Briggs extended Jung's model with the initial development of the MBTI. They put Jung's concepts into language that could be understood and used by the average person. Isabel Myers' book "Gifts Differing", published posthumously in 1980, provided a comprehensive introduction to the Jung/Myers theory. Myers' book and her philosophy of celebrating human diversity anticipated the workplace diversity movement.
The MBTI is a registered trademark of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust and is published by CPP, Inc (formerly Consulting Psychologist Press) who also distributes the Inventory. The MBTI is available from CPP and its licensees in approximately 20 foreign languages. In addition, alternate versions of the inventory have been scientifically customized and validated for other languages and cultures for which a straight translation of English language terms would yield inaccurate results.

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Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Employee Satisfaction Survey Project Report

‘People are our greatest asset’ is a mantra that companies have been chanting for years. But only a few companies have started putting Human Resources Management (HRM) systems in place that support this philosophy. There are a number of challenges in the Indian industry which require the serious attention of HR managers to ‘find the right candidate’ and build a ‘conducive work environment’ which will be beneficial for the employees, as well as the organization. The industry is already under stress on account of persistent problems such as attrition, confidentiality, and loyalty. Other problems are managing people, motivation to adopt new technology changes, recruitment and training, performance management, development, and compensation management. With these challenges, it is timely for organizations to rethink the ways they manage their people. Managing HR in the knowledge based industry is a significant challenge for HR managers as it involves a multi task responsibility. In the present scenario, HR managers perform a variety of responsibilities. Earlier their role was confined to administrative functions like managing manpower requirements and maintaining rolls for the organization. Now it is more strategic as per the demands of the industry.

Managing People
In view of the industry dynamics, in the current times, there is a greater demand for knowledge workers. Resumes abound, yet companies still fervently search for the people who can make a difference to the business. Often talented professionals enjoy high bargaining power due to their knowledge and skills in hand. The attitude is different for those who are taking up responsibilities at a lesser age and experience. These factors have resulted in the clear shift in approach to individualized career management from organization career commitment.

Motivating the Workforce
As the competition is growing rapidly in the global market, a technological edge supported by a talent pool has become a crucial factor for survival in the market. Naturally, as a result every organization gives top priority to technology advancement programs. HR managers are now performing the role of motivators for their knowledge workers to adopt new changes.

Competency Development
Human capital is the real asset for any organization, and this makes the HR role important in recruiting, managing, and retaining the best. The HR department has a clear role in this process and determines the success tempo of any organization. An urgent priority for most of the organizations is to have an innovative and competent HR pool; sound in HR management practices with strong business knowledge.

Recruitment and Training
Recruitment has become a major function from an imperative sub system in HR, particularly in the industry. HR managers play a vital role in creating assets for the organization in the form of quality manpower. Attracting new talent also is a top priority for software companies, but less so for smaller companies. Another challenge for HR managers is to put systems in place to make the people a perfect fit for the job. Skill redundancy is fast in the industry. To overcome this problem, organizations give the utmost priority to training and skill enhancement programs on a continuous basis. Many companies are providing technical training to the employees on a quarterly basis. These trainings are quite useful also in terms of providing security to the employees.

The Trust Factor
Low levels of trust inhibit tacit knowledge sharing in the knowledge based industry. It is essential that Our Company takes more initiatives to improve the security levels of the employees.

Work life Balance Factor
Another dimension to the challenges faced by our company is the growing pace of talent acquisition. This aspect creates with it the challenge of a smoother assimilation and the cultural binding of the new comers into the organization fold. The pressure of delivering the best of quality services in a reduced time frame calls for ensuring that employees maintain a work life balance.

Attrition/Retention of the Talent Pool
One of the toughest challenges for the HR managers in the industry is to deal with the prevalent high attrition levels. Though there is an adequate supply of qualified staff at entry level, there are huge gaps in the middle and senior level management in the industry. Further, the salary growth plan for each employee is not well defined. This situation has resulted in increased levels of poaching and attrition between organizations. The industry average attrition rate is 30–35 per cent and could range up to 60 per cent.

Bridging the Demand Supply Gap
HR managers have to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of professionals. They have to maintain consistency in performance and have to keep the motivation levels of employees high, despite the monotonous nature of work. The same also leads to recurring training costs. Inconsistent performance directly affects revenues. Dwindling motivation levels lead to a loss of interest in the job and a higher number of errors.

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Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Technorati

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Sunday, November 22, 2009

Job Rotation and Transfer

Meaning of Job Rotation:
Job Rotation implies systematic movement of employees form one job to the other. Job remains unchanged but employees performing them shift from one job to the other. This is described as job rotation. With job rotation, an employee is given an opportunity to perform different jobs, which enriches his skills, experience and ability to perform different jobs. However, the jobs offered under job rotation are more or less of the same nature. As a result, he will be skilled to a new job which is more or less similar to his earlier job.

Benefits of Job Rotation
1. Raises intrinsic reward potential of a job: Job Rotation is likely to raise intrinsic reward potential of a job due to different skill and abilities needed to perform it. A worker becomes a broader based versatile worker due to job rotation. Management gets the benefit of job rotation because workers become competent in several jobs rather than only in one job. Staff adjustment in different department is possible easily due it the practice of job rotation.

2. Beneficial to the organization: Due to job rotation, the organization stands to gain because of the versatility of its employees who develop skills due to job rotation. It develops a common culture because of wide and common exposure to workers.

3. Worker becomes competent in several jobs: Due to job rotation, workers know about a variety of jobs. It also facilitates personal growth of employees and makes the workers more useful and valuable to the organization. The organization stands to benefit as the workers become competent in several jobs. As and result, the management gets employees who can perform a variety of tasks to meet contingencies.

4. Improves inter-departmental co-operation: Periodical job rotation improves inter-departmental co-operation. Employees understand each other’s problems properly and this facilitates co-operation among them.

5. Motivates employees: Job rotation technique is used for motivating employees in the organizations. It is suggested as a motivational strategy.

6. Reduce Boredom: Job rotation reduce boredom and disinterest among employees. Due to job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs of more or less the same nature. The employee gets some variety of work, workplace and peers.

7. Develops wide skills among workers: job rotation develops and wide range of skills among employees. It broadens knowledge and skills of an employee. Personal worth of employee also improves.


Job Rotation in HDFC Bank
In HDFC Bank all employees involved in the Job Rotation Schedule. In HDFC Bank the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years.

The flexibility and consideration is given to those employees who have Physical difficulty for such employee there is no Job Rotation for example: Deaf and Dumb. Job Rotation takes in bank for other new comers to show their work as per their knowledge and to avoid frauds.

For Job Rotation of the employees meeting are held in every 6 months and for officers it is 3 years. The employees are been provided with the rule and regulation.

Job Rotation in Indian Overseas Bank:
In JOB all the employees involved in the job rotation schedule, the staffs, clerks and officers. The staffs and clerks have internal rotation and officers get rotate to other branch.

As per the Bank rule the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years. The flexibility and consideration is been given and those individual who have physical deficiency have no job rotation.

The employees are involved in the rotation schedule for other individual to their talent and to avoid malpractices and frauds. Meetings are held to know the employee which further position he will take place to determine interest and gain involvement. According to the employee performance and response towards his job on that basis the job is rotated.

Job Rotation in RBI
In RBI the job rotation is mainly concerned with the officers. The officers in RBI get their job rotated in every year. For such job rotation the employees who are going to get rotated meeting are held so that the officers get to know their future role. According to the rules and conditions to determine interest and gain involvement.

Job Transfer
Meaning:
In business organizations, employees are shifted from one post to the other or from one department to other or one unit/ branch/ plant of the company to the other. This is called as job transfer of transfer of employees. Such transfers are quite common in case of Banks, government department, manufacturing companies and other business organizations.

A transfer is defined as, “a change in job where the new job is substantially equal to the old in term of pay, status and responsibilities.”

Transfers of employees do cerate some resentment from concerned employees. This is natural as transfers may create certain personal and family problems. In addition, an employee has to adjust with new situation. Finally it may be pointed out that transfer is neither promotion nor demotion but merely a horizontal or lateral movement of an employee from one job, to another at same other place where the salary, status and responsibilities are more or less the same.

Reasons of Job Transfer
1. Variation in the volume of work: Transfers are necessary due to variation in the volume of work in different department/ sections. Shortage of employees or increase in the work load in one department leads to transfer of employees.
2. Providing training to employee: Transfers are made for providing opportunities to employees for training and development.
3. Rectification of poor placement: Transfers are necessary for the rectification of poor placement made in the initial period. Similarly, transfers are necessary in order to utilize the service of an employee in the best possible manner.
4. Satisfied the personal need of employee: Transfers are necessary satisfy the personal needs (Personal Difficulties) of the employees. They include family problems, sickness, and education of children and so on. Such transfers take place especially among female employees.
5. Meeting mutual need of employees: Transfers are, sometimes, made in order to meet the mutual needs of to employees. It is a type of mutual exchange and is usually accepted by the management.
6. Meeting Organizational needs: transfers are necessary to meet the organizational needs developed out of expansion programmes or fluctuation in work requirements or changes in the organizational structure or dropping of existing product lines. For example, experienced workers and supervisors are transfer to new plants/ factories in order to manage the work smoothly.
7. Solution to poor performance: transfers are, sometimes, made when the worker fail to perform his job efficiently. He is transferred to and new place or post and is given an opportunity to improve his performance at a new place. Here, transfer is treated as a deter alternative to outright dismissal.
8. Avoiding fatigue and monotony: Transfers are made of avoiding fatigue and monotony of work. The productivity of an employee may decline due to monotony of his or her job. To break his monotony, the employee is transferred.
9. Removing poor personal relations: the relations between the workers and his supervisor may not be smooth and cordial. This may affect the work of department. One method to solve the problem is to transfer the worker that department. This transfer may be necessary for removal of the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her boss or between one worker and the other.
10. Providing relief and to punish employees: Transfers may be made in order to give relief to employees who are over burdened or are working under heavy risk or tension over a long period. Similarly, transfers are made as a disciplinary action for serious mistakes on the part of employees. This practice is widespread mainly in government offices and police department.

Principle of Sound Transfer Policy
Company managements must frame a policy on transfers and apply it to all transfers instead of treating each transfer on its own merits. Such policy must be based on the following principles of transfers:

1. Necessary Transfer: Transfers should be made only when absolutely necessary. The frequency of transfers and the minimum period between transfers need to be decided clearly and made know to all employees. The basis of transfers should be properly decided. Large scale transfers, frequent transfers and transfers for the sake of transfers should be avoided by laying down adequate selection and placement procedures for the purpose.

2. Responsibility of Transfers: Responsibility for initiating and approving transfer decisions should be clearly defined and properly located. The authority to handle transfers should be decided clearly. The best course is to centralize the authority handling transfers and make the personnel/HR department responsible for all transfers.

3. Fair Transfers: Transfer should not be made as a punishment or as revenge on an employee or simply to trouble an employee and his family members.

4. Consideration of Employees: Transfers should be made after taking concerned employee in to confidence and after explaining how transfer is in the best interest of the organization and employee.

5. Interest of Organization: All transfers should be made in the best interest of the organization. In addition, there should be sound justification in the case of all transfers made. The management should be able to prove its objectivity and impartiality as regards transfers made.

6. Sound Transfer Policy: Management should prepare a sound transfer policy for a long period. It should be given wide publicity for the information of employees. The interests of the organization should not be forgotten while framing a policy of transfers.

7. Employees View: An employee should be given an opportunity to appeal to an appropriate authority with full opportunity to an employee to express his views.

8. And request for transfer by an employee on sound personal grounds (e.g. family problems, health, schooling of children, unsuitability of climate, etc.) Should be considered sympathetically and granted promptly.

Types of Transfer
There are different types of transfers depending on purpose for which the transfers made. The important ones will now be highlighted as follows:

1. Production Transfers: These transfers are made from one department where the labour requirements are generally reduced to departments where labour needs are increasing or vacancies have occurred through separations. Such production transfers are made to prevent lay-offs. It is meaningless to have in the same organization lay-offs on one job and employees being needed in another department for a similar type of work. Thus, production transfers, at about the same occupational level, help to stabilize employment in an organization and therefore need some form of centralized control, say, through the Personnel Department. Sometimes, production transfers may involve downgrading, that is, being transferred to less skilled jobs. Although it is called production transfers, similar situations can also exist in non-manufacturing enterprises or divisions where an employee is transferred from one department to another for similar reasons.

2. Replacement transfers: From the view-point of purpose, replacement transfers are similar to production transfers as they also try to avoid lay-offs. Replacement transfers are used, however, to replace a new employee with an employee who has been in the organization for a long time.

3. Shift transfers: This is a common type of transfer of an employee from one shift to another on the same type of work. Workers generally dislike a second shift assignment as it affects their participation n community life.

Therefore, to minimize this, shift transfers are introduced. Of course, there are certain employees who would prefer the second or the third shift. For example, were the women are working, mothers might prefer to work in such shift so that they could be during the day with their children’s.

4. Remedial transfers: As the title suggests, these transfers are made to remedy the situation. For example, if the initial placement has been faulty, or the worker cannot gat along with his supervisor, a transfer to a more appropriate job or more agreeable supervisor might result in better performance. In this way, a good organization treats its employees as individuals, of course, within the broad policy framework.

5. Versatility transfers: The objective of these transfers is to increase the versatility of the employee by shifting hid from one job to another. In this way, the employee is provided a varied and broader job experience. This helps the employee through job enrichment and job enrichment. It can also help him get prepared for future promotions. Besides, it helps the organization, as enrichment of an employee would make him not only more effective but also ready for higher openings.

Job Transfer in Bank of Baroda
In Bank of Baroda there is different policy for Clark and Officer. Clarks are transfer every 5 year from one branch to another branch in the same region. Region indicates the cities like Mumbai, Pune and Nashik etc.
Officers of the branch are transfer every 3 year from one branch to another branch from one zone to another zone. Zone indicates south, north, west and west.

HR Practices in Hotel Industry

A project report on HR Practices in hotel industry on various five star hotels.

Workplace Environment and its Impact on Employee Performance

Many managers and supervisors labor under the mistaken impression that the level of employee performance on the job is proportional to the size of the employee’s pay packet. Although this may be true in a minority of cases, numerous employee surveys have shown by and large this to be untrue. In fact, salary increases and bonuses for performance, in many instances, have a very limited short-term effect. The extra money soon comes to be regarded not as an incentive but as an "entitlement".
There are other factors that when combined provide a more powerful determinant of employee performance. When these other factors are missing or diluted, the employee does come to work only for a paycheck. In this case, the employee is present at work in body only, leaving their mind outside the gate.

It is the quality of the employee’s workplace environment that most impacts on their level of motivation and subsequent performance. How well they engage with the organisation, especially with their immediate environment, influences to a great extent their error rate, level of innovation and collaboration with other employees, absenteeism and, ultimately, how long they stay in the job. Many studies have revealed that most employees leave their organisation because of the relationship with their immediate supervisor or manager.

So, what are the workplace environment factors that need to be taken into consideration by any serious manager? Described below are the key factors and how each can be utilised by supervisors and managers to boost performance.

Workplace Performance Factors
Goal-setting

Involve employees in setting meaningful goals and performance measures for their work. This can be done informally between the employee and their immediate supervisor or as part of an organisation’s formal performance management process. The key here is that each employee is actively engaged in the goal-setting process and takes ownership of the final agreed goals and measures.

Performance feedback
Regularly feed back to employees information on how they are performing. This should consist of both positive feedback on what the employee is doing right as well as feedback on what requires improvement. The feedback needs to be as objective as possible and delivered with the appropriate interpersonal and conflict resolution skills. It can be a mix of both informal feedback and feedback delivered as part of a formal performance management cycle.

Role congruity
Work to ensure that the role that the employee is required to perform is consistent with their expectations on joining the organisation and any subsequent training. The organisation’s role expectations are typically reflected in formal documents, such as Job Descriptions and Role Specifications. These expectations should be consistent with tasks allocated by the employee’s immediate supervisor.

Defined processes
Many errors, defects and customer complaints are the result of poor process management. Constrain the variability of how work is actually performed through documenting processes and communicating such expectations to employees. Verify on a regular or random basis that the work is actually performed in the way required. Along with goal setting, getting employees to help define and improve processes is a powerful opportunity for engagement.

Workplace incentives
Determine what motivates your employees in particular and set up formal and informal structures for rewarding employees that behave in the way required. Rewards may consist of a mix of internal rewards, such as challenging assignments, and external rewards, such as higher compensation and peer recognition.

Supervisor support
Act as advocates for employees, gathering and distributing the resources needed by them in order for them to be able to do a good job. Immediate supervisors and managers need to display the interpersonal skills required to engage employees and enhance their self-confidence. This includes providing positive encouragement for a job well done.

Mentoring/coaching
Make available to employees skilled and respected people to help them perform better in their current role and to assist them develop further into a future role. Mentors and coaches may be internal to an organisation or external. Either way, they will need to possess the necessary facilitation skills to assist employees apply existing sills and develop new skills.

Resource availability
The vast majority of employees take pride in their work and try hard to do a good job. Make sure that individual workloads and organisational systems and processes do not hinder employees from applying established skills or from practicing newly learned skills. Adequate time and material resources need to be available to enable them to perform to the best of their ability. Make their work easier and help minimise error rates and customer dissatisfaction by supplying job aids. These can include templates, guides, models and checklists.

Money is not a sufficient motivator in encouraging the superior workplace performance required in today’s competitive business environment. Managers and supervisors will need to be comfortable with working with the whole gamut of workplace factors that influence employee motivation. Skills required include the ability to engage employees in mutual goal setting, clarify role expectations and provide regular performance back. Time and energy will also need to be given to providing relevant performance incentives, managing processes, providing adequate resources and workplace coaching. Last but not least, to drive their organisations to peak performance managers and supervisors must put out front the human face of their organisation. Paramount here is the human-to-human interaction through providing individualised support and encouragement to each and every employee.

Five Steps for Effective Change Process

STEP 1: MOTIVATING CHANGE
Organizational change involves moving from the known to the unknown. Because the future is uncertain and may adversely affect people's competencies, worth, and coping abilities, organization members generally do not support change unless compelling reasons convince them to do so. This requires attention to two related tasks: creating readiness for change and overcoming resistance to change.

Creating Readiness for Change
One of the more fundamental axioms of OD is that people's readiness for change depends on creating a felt need for change. This involves making people so dissatisfied with the status quo that they are motivated to try new work processes, technologies, or ways of behaving. The following three methods can help generate sufficient dissatisfaction to produce change:

1. Sensitize organizations to pressures for change.
2. Reveal discrepancies between current and desired states.
3. Convey credible positive expectations for the change.

Overcoming Resistance to Change
At the organization level, resistance to change can come from three sources. Technical resistance comes from the habit of following common procedures and the consideration of sunk costs invested in the status quo. Political resistance can arise when organizational changes threaten powerful stakeholders, such as top executive or staff personnel, or call into question the past decisions of leaders. Finally, culture resistance takes the form of systems and procedures that reinforce the status quo, promoting conformity to existing values, norms, and assumptions about how things should operate.

STEP 2: CREATING A VISION
The second activity in leading and managing change involves creating a vision of what members want the organization to look like or become. Generally, a vision describes the core values and purpose that guide the organization as well as an envisioned future toward which change is directed. It provides a valued direction for designing, implementing, and assessing organizational changes. The vision also can energize commitment to change by providing members with a common goal and a compelling rationale for why change is necessary and worth the effort.

Research by Collins and Porras suggests that compelling visions are composed of two parts: (1) a relatively stable core ideology that describes the organization's core values and purpose, and (2) an envisioned future with bold goals and a vivid description of the desired future state that reflects the specific change under consideration.

Step 3: DEVELOPING POLITICAL SUPPORT
Managing the political dynamics of change includes the following activities:
- Assessing Change Agent Power
- Identifying Key Stakeholders
- Influencing Stakeholders

Step 4 : MANAGING THE TRANSITION
Implementing organizational change involves moving from the existing organiza¬tion state to the desired future state. There are three major activities and structure to facilitate organizational transition: activity planning, commitment planning, and change-management structures.

Activity Planning
This involves making a road map for change, citing specific activities and events that must occur if the transition is to be successful. Activity planning should clearly identify, temporally orient, and integrate discrete change tasks and should link these tasks to the organization's change goals and priorities.

Commitment Planning
This activity involves identifying key people and groups whose commitment is needed for change to occur and formulating a strategy for gaining their support.

Change-Management Structures
Because organizational transitions tend to be ambiguous and to need direction, special structures for managing the change process need to be created. These management structures should include people who have the power to mobilize resources to promote change, the respect of the existing leadership and change advocates, and the interpersonal and political skills to guide the change process.

Step 5 : SUSTAINING MOMENTUM
The following five activities can help to sustain momentum for carrying change through to completion: providing resources for change, building a support system for change agents, developing new competencies and skills, reinforcing new behaviors, and staying the course.

Types of OD Intervention

Information-based Intervention
Interventions that define : Activities that specify or clarify the vision, mission, purpose, process, products, services, market position, roles, relationships, responsibilities, outcomes, expectations, and so on. Examples: holding sessions to create vision statements; confirming market direction and market niche; mutually setting performance goals. This intervention is delivered when people are unclear, disagree, or have different expectations; there are conflicting objectives; or people do not have a shared understanding.

Interventions that inform: Activities that communicate goals, objectives, expectations, results, discrepancies, and so on. Examples: producing internal newsletters; holding debriefing sessions; giving feedback. This intervention is delivered when information has changed, the people have changed, or the people are uninformed, and the consequence is poor performance; or people don't get the information they need.

Interventions that document: Activities that codify information (to preserve it and make it accessible. Examples: setting up libraries; creating manuals, expert systems, job aids, and decision guides. This intervention is delivered when information is not accessible over time or is too complex; job aids, manuals, help screens, and so forth are lacking or inadequate, inaccurate, or hard to access.

Consequences-based Intervention
Interventions that reward: Activities and programs that induce and maintain desired behaviors, eliminate undesirable behaviors, and reward desired outcomes. Examples: holding public ceremonies and annual recognition events; paying for performance. This intervention is delivered when current incentives either reinforce the wrong behaviors or ignore the desired behaviors; or there are few incentives for people to-do beater, more, or differently.

Intervention that measure: Activities and systems that provide metrics and benchmarks so people can monitor performance and have a basis to evaluate it. Examples: developing a scorecard; tracking means and variance in performance over time. This intervention is delivered when people don?t know what criteria are being used to judge productivity, performance, value, and so on, and they could better control their own performance if they knew what the criteria were; measures of good performance are lacking; or measures are inappropriate.

Interventions that enforce: Activities that actualize consequences and achieve compliance. Example: policing; reviewing; double-checking; suspending; removing; withholding pay. This intervention is delivered when consequences for poor performance or unacceptable behavior are hidden or not enforced.

Design-based Intervention
Interventions that organize: Activities that change the structure or arrange business units, reporting relationships, work processes, jobs, and tasks. Examples: reengineering processes; merging functions; reorganizing responsibilities. This intervention is delivered when the current structure is inefficient, results in redundancy, adds excess costs, overly burdens cycle times, and hides accountability.

Interventions that standardize: Activities that systematize or automate processes and standardize tasks, tools, equipment, materials, components, or measures. Examples: adopting ISO 9000; implementing uniform standards. This intervention is delivered when deviations in equipment, materials, specifications, procedures, common practices, and so on add extra costs, result in low yields, and cause variance in the quality of work.

Interventions that (re) design: Activities that result in useful, easy-to-use, safe, and ergonomically designed environments, workplaces, equipment, and tolls. Examples: building in safety features; designing for ease of installation, service, maintenance, and upgrading. This intervention is delivered when the current work space, equipment, tools, or materials encumber, result in non-value adding activity. Or put employees? health and safety at risk.

Interventions that reframe: Activities and programs that generate new paradigms so that people can experience new perspectives, find creative solutions, integrate new concepts into their behavior, and manage change. Examples: challenging assumptions; engaging in dialogue/ entering into new alliances; brainstorming; creating alternative futures. This intervention is delivered when old attitudes about work are preventing innovation or growth.

Interventions that counsel: activities and programs that help individuals, either singularly or collectively, deal with work, personal, career, family, and financial issue. Examples: offering on-site daycare, retirement seminars, on-site physical fitness canters, and employee assistance programs. This intervention is delivered when people are preoccupied with or distracted by personal and career issues, and this is limiting productivity or adding unnecessary costs.

Interventions that develop: Activities and programs that expand skills and knowledge. Examples: offering training, coaching, and structured on-the-job experiences. This intervention is delivered when current performance is suffering or future performance will suffer because people lack skills and knowledge.

Interventions that align: Activities and programs that work toward congruency between purpose and practice. Examples: setting up cross-functional teams; soliciting customer (internal and external) feedback. This intervention is delivered when current massages, behaviors, systems, structures, or environments do net support the organization's goals.

Saturday, November 21, 2009

Performance Appraisal ebook

A very good ebook on Performance Appraisal.....hope it will be useful for you.
Download Ebook Below -

Download

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Effectiveness of Training & Development

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The project was undertaken to analyze the concept of, “Training method effectiveness in meeting the KSA objectives of an organisation” and to adopt the best practices of the industry to serve the customer.

To accomplish the above, around 42 employees of Keane, a Global business and IT Consulting firm, in Greater Noida were surveyed and interviewed. The core purpose of the survey was to find out employee perspective towards the training (mainly induction) that are given to them.

An interview based on a questionnaire to know what does the employee feels in general towards its own organization and the training methods used. The idea behind the study is to adopt the best practices and to eliminate the pitfalls of the system. The project is an approach is how to give feedback on training method effectiveness in meeting the objectives of the organization.

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Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Competancy Mapping Project report

Introduction
Today organizations are all talking in terms of competence. Gone are the days when people used to talk in terms of skill sets, which would make their organizations competitive. There has been a shift in the focus of the organizations. Now they believe in excelling and not competing. It is better to build a core competency that will see them through crisis. And what other way than to develop the people, for human resource is the most valuable resource any organization has.

Organizations of the future will have to rely more on their competent employees than any other resource. It is a major factor that determines the success of an organization. Competencies are the inner tools for motivating employees, directing systems and processes and guiding the business towards common goals that allow the organizations to increase its value. Competencies provide a common language and method that can integrate all the major HR functions and services like Recruitment, Training, performance management, Remuneration, Performance appraisal, Career and succession planning and integrated Human resource management system.

Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational applications such as:
• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization
• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles
• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior.

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Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Dejobbing project report

Dejobbing-meaning
Whether specialized, enlarged, or enriched, workers still generally have specific jobs to do, and these jobs have required job descriptions and job analysis. In many firms today, however, jobs are becoming more amorphous (unorganized, vague) and more difficult to define. In other words, the trend is towards dejobbing. Dejobbing is “broadening the responsibilities of the company jobs, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions.”
De jobbing is the result of several changes taking place in business today. Firms need to keep pace with a number of revolutionary forces- accelerating product and technological changes, global competition, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes, and a shift to a service oriented economy and the arrival of the information age. Forces like these have changed the playing field on which firms compete. This rapid change has increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and generally more competitive and capable of competing in a global market place.
Flattening organizations, creating empowered teams, re-engineering and the like are the techniques which make firms highly responsive, flexible and competitive. Firms are slowly moving towards new configurations, ones built around jobs that are broad and that may change everyday. People in such situations no longer can take their cues from job descriptions or a supervisor’s instructions. Signals come from changing demands of work. Workers learn to focus on their individual effort and collective resources in such work that need doing. They change as the need of the hour changes.

Reasons for dejobbing the organization
The organizational methods managers use to accomplish the various changes have helped weaken the meaning of job as a well- defined and clearly delineated set of responsibilities. Here is a sampling of organizational factors that have contributed to this weakening and to encouraging workers not to limit themselves to narrowly defined jobs.
1. Flatter Organizations
Instead of traditional, pyramid-shaped organizations with seven or more management layers, flat organizations with just three or four levels are more prevalent. Most large firms have already cut their management layers from a dozen to six or fewer. Because the remaining managers have more people reporting to them, they can supervise them less, so the jobs of subordinates end up bigger in terms of both breadth and depth of responsibilities.

2. Work Teams
Managers increasingly organize tasks around teams and processes rather than around specialized functions. For example, at Chesebrough-Ponds USA, a subsidiary of Unilever, mangers replaced a traditional pyramidal organization with multi-skilled, cross functional, and self-directed teams; the latter now run the plant’s four product areas. Hourly employees make employee assignments, schedule overtime, establish production times and changeovers, and even handle cost control, requisitions, and work orders. They also are solely responsible for quality control under the plant’s continuous quality improvement program. In an organization like this, employee’s jobs change daily; there is thus an intentional effort to avoid having employees view their jobs as a specific, narrow set of responsibilities.

3. The Boundary-less Organization
In a boundary-less organization the widespread use of teams and cross-functional task forces reduces and makes more permeable the boundaries that typically separate departments (like sales and production) and hierarchical levels. The Boundary-less organization foster responsiveness by encouraging employees to rid themselves of that’s-not-my-job attitude that typically create walls between one employee area and another. Instead the focus is on defining the project or task at hand in terms of the overall best interests of the organization, thereby further reducing the idea of a job as a clearly defined set of duties.

4. Reengineering
Re-engineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. The principles that shaped the structure ad management of business for hundreds of years like highly specialized divisions of work should be retired. Instead, the firm should emphasize combining tasks into integrated, unspecialized processes (such as customer service) assigned to team of employees.
You can reengineer jobs in many ways. For example, you can combine several different specialized jobs into a few relatively enlarged and enriched ones. Typically, in reengineered situations workers tend to become collectively responsible for overall results rather than being individually responsible for just their own tasks. They share joint responsibility with their team members for performing the whole process, not just a small piece of it. They not only use a broader range of skills from day to day, they have to be thinking of a far greater picture. Most important, while not every members of the team will be doing exactly the same work the lines between the workers jobs blur, and jobs are thus very broadly defined.

The quantitative and qualitative aspects of dejobbing
In the quantitative sense, dejobbing is simply a game of numbers: the same work that used to require 100 workers a few years ago may be done by 50 today-and maybe by 10 tomorrow. This of course is old shoe as we have been turning manufacturing tasks over to machines for almost 200 years. In the 1950s, 33% of the US labor force was employed in manufacturing. By the 1990s, that number dropped to less than 17%. Advanced robotics and the introduction of smarter digital machines eventually will take over almost all the tasks on the assembly floor. Indeed, many manufacturers may need almost no manual workers within 20 years.

The service sector will be the most affected next. Already, much of the repetitive jobs done by clerical workers and secretaries are increasingly being done more cheaply and efficiently with information technologies. A case in point is the one of bank tellers vs. ATMs. An ATM can conduct 2,000 transactions a day, 168 hours a week compared with 200 transactions and about 40 hours for a teller. The ATM’s annual cost of about USD 22,000 is probably cheaper than a full-time employee with benefits!

It is obvious that not just blue-collar jobs are disappearing. White-collar jobs are disappearing even faster, and still more of them are at risk.

There is a qualitative shift going on too. It is not just that fewer of the old-style jobs are left. It is that the work situations encouraged by the new technological and economic realities are not jobs in the traditional sense; and a great deal of what is being done in today’s organizations is done by people who do not have “a real job.” The emergence of these new work practices that were mainly in the form of widespread use of outsourcing and the hiring of “independent contractors” and temporary workers resulted in the severe layoffs suffered by American factory workers in the 1980s, and white-collar office workers from the early 90s to this day.

Case- British Petroleum
British Petroleum [BP] felt the need for flatter and empowered employees inspired the management to replace job descriptions with matrices listing skills and skill levels. The senior management wanted to shift employees’ attention from job description [“that’s not my job” mentality] to one that would motivate employees to obtain the new skills they needed to accomplish their broader responsibilities. The solution was a skills matrix. Skills matrices were created for various jobs within two classes of employees, those on a management track and those whose aims lay elsewhere [such as those who stayed in engineering]. For each job or job family [such as the position of a drilling manager], a matrix was prepared.
It identified
(1) the basic skills needed for that job, and
(2) the minimum level of each skill required for that job or job family.
Such a matrix shifts employees’ focus. The focus is no longer on job description which lists specific job duties. Instead, the focus is on developing new skills needed for employees’ broader, empowered, and often relatively undefined responsibilities.
The skills matrix approach has prompted other HR changes in BP’s exploration division. For example, the matrices provide a constant reminder of the skills that employees must improve, and also the firm’s new skill based pay rewards based on skill improvement. Similarly, performance appraisals now focus more on employee skill, and every training programme emphasizes developing broad skills like leadership and planning- ones that are applicable across a wide range of responsibilities and jobs.
Broader HR issues are also involved when firms de-job. The de-jobbed company should find people who can work well without the cue system of job descriptions. This puts a premium on hiring people, as the people should be with the skills and values to handle empowered jobs.
There is also a shift from training to education, in other words from teaching employees the “how” of job to increasing their insight and understanding regarding its “why”. In a rapidly changing industrial environment, the demands for flexibility and responsiveness mean that it is impossible to hire people who already know everything. Here continuing education over the course of the employees’ organizational career becomes the norm.

Trends in participative management

A pdf/ppt file for refrence for trends in participative management.

Job enrichment

There are various methods in which job design can be carried out. These methods help to analysis the job, to design the contents of the and to decide how the job must be carried out .these methods are as follows :-
I. Job rotation
II. Job enlargement
III. Job enrichment

Job enrichment :-
Job enrichment is a term given by Fedric herzberg. According to him a few motivators are added to a job to make it more rewarding, challenging and interesting. According to herzberg the motivating factors enrich the job and improve performance.
In other words we can say that job enrichment is a method of adding some motivating factors to an existing job to make it more interesting. The motivating factors can be-
a) Giving more freedom.
b) Encouraging participation.
c) Giving employees the freedom to select the method of working.
d) Allowing employees to select the place at which they would like to   work.
e) Allowing workers to select the tools that they require on the job.
f) Allowing workers to decide the layout of plant or office.

Job enrichment gives lot of freedom to the employee but at the same time increases the responsibility. Some workers are power and responsibility hungry. Job enrichment satisfies the needs of the employees.

Advantages of job enrichment
1. Interesting and challenging job :-
When a certain amount of power is given to employees it makes the job more challenging for them, we can say that job enrichment is a method of employee empowerment.
2. Improves decision making :-
Through job enrichment we can improve the decision making ability of the employee by asking him to decide on factory layout, method and style of working.
3. Identifies future managerial caliber :-
When we provide decision making opportunities to employees, we can identify which employee is better that other in decision making and mark employees for future promotion.
4. Identifies higher order needs of employees :-
This method identifies higher order needs of the employee. Abraham maslow’s theory of motivation speaks of these higher order needs e.g. ego and esteemed needs, self actualization etc. These needs can be achieved through job enrichment.
5. Reduces work load of superiors :-
Job enrichment reduces the work load of senior staff. When decisions are taken by juniors the seniors work load is reduced.

Disadvantages of job enrichment
1. Job enrichment is based on the assumptions that workers have complete knowledge to take decisions and they have the right attitude. In reality this might not be the case due to which there can be problems in working.
2. Job enrichment has negative implications ie. Along with usual work decision making work is also given to the employees and not many may be comfortable with this.
3. Superiors may feel that power is being taken away from them and given to the junior’s. This might lead to ego problems.
4. This method will only work in certain situations. Some jobs already give a lot of freedom and responsibility; this method will not work for such jobs.
5. Some people are internally dissatisfied with the organization. For such people no amount of job enrichment can solve the problem.

Human Resource Planning

Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.

The process of HRP plays a very important role in the organization. The importance of HRP can be explained as follows.

1. Anticipating future requirement :-
Thru this process of HRP, the company is able to find out how many people will be required in future. Based on this requirement the company could take further actions. This method also helps the company to identify the number of jobs which will become vacant in the near future.

2. Recruitment and selection process :-
The recruitment and selection process is a very costly affair for a company. Many companies spend lakhs of rupees on this process. Therefore recruitment and selection must be carried out only if it is extremely necessary. HRP process helps to identify whether recruitment and selection are necessary or not.

3. Placement of personnel :-
Since the HRP process is conducted for the entire organization, we can identify the requirements for each and every department. Based on the requirement, we can identify existing employees and place them on those jobs which are vacant.

4. Performance appraisal :-
HRP make performance appraisal more meaningful. Since feedback is provided in performance appraisal and employee is informed about his future chances in same company, the employee is motivated to work better. Information for all this is collected from HRP process.

5. Promotion opportunity :-
HRP identifies vacancies in the entire organization including all the branches of all the company. Therefore when the company implements promotion policy it can undertake its activities in a very smooth manner.

Limitations of human resource planning

Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
Although HRP is a very advantageous method it has some limitations which can be explained as follows

1. The future is uncertain :-
The future in any country is uncertain i.e. there are political, cultural, technological changes taking place every day. This effects the employment situation. Accordingly the company may have to appoint or remove people. Therefore HRP can only be a guiding factor. We cannot rely too much on it and do every action according to it.

2. Conservative attitude of top management :-
Much top management adopts a conservative attitude and is not ready to make changes. The process of HRP involves either appointing. Therefore it becomes very difficult to implement HRP in organization because top management does not support the decisions of other department.

3. Problem of surplus staff :-
HRP gives a clear out solution for excess staff i.e. Termination, layoff, VRS,. However when certain employees are removed from company it mostly affects the psyche of the existing employee, and they start feeling insecure, stressed out and do not believe in the company. This is a limitation of HRP i.e. it does not provide alternative solution like re-training so that employee need not be removed from the company.

4. Time consuming activity :-
HRP collects information from all departments, regarding demand and supply of personnel. This information is collected in detail and each and every job is considered. Therefore the activity takes up a lot of time.

5. Expensive process :-
The solution provided by process of HRP incurs expense. E.g. VRS, overtime, etc. company has to spend a lot of money in carrying out the activity. Hence we can say the process is expensive.

Factors affecting Human Resource Planning in an organization

Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.

1. Employment :-
HRP is affected by the employment situation in the country i.e. in countries where there is greater unemployment; there may be more pressure on the company, from government to appoint more people. Similarly some company may force shortage of skilled labour and they may have to appoint people from other countries.

2. Technical changes in the society :-
Technology changes at a very fast speed and new people having the required knowledge are required for the company. In some cases, company may retain existing employees and teach them the new technology and in some cases, the company have to remove existing people and appoint new.

3. Organizational changes :-
Changes take place within the organization from time to time i.e. the company diversify into new products or close down business in some areas etc. in such cases the HRP process i.e. appointing or removing people will change according to situation.

4. Demographic changes :-
Demographic changes refer to things referring to age, population, composition of work force etc. A number of people retire every year. A new batch of graduates with specialization turns out every year. This can change the appointment or the removal in the company.

5. Shortage of skill due to labour turnover :-
Industries having high labour turnover rate, the HRP will change constantly i.e. many new appointments will take place. This also affects the way HRP is implemented.

6. Multicultural workforce :-
Workers from different countries travel to other countries in search of job. When a company plans it’s HRP it needs to take into account this factor also.

7. Pressure groups :-
Company has to keep in mind certain pleasure. Groups like human rights activist, woman activist, media etc. as they are very capable for creating problems for the company, when issues concerning these groups arise, appointment or retrenchment becomes difficult. You can read external factors on following link - External factors affecting Human Resource Management

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