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Sunday, November 22, 2009

Job Rotation and Transfer

Meaning of Job Rotation:
Job Rotation implies systematic movement of employees form one job to the other. Job remains unchanged but employees performing them shift from one job to the other. This is described as job rotation. With job rotation, an employee is given an opportunity to perform different jobs, which enriches his skills, experience and ability to perform different jobs. However, the jobs offered under job rotation are more or less of the same nature. As a result, he will be skilled to a new job which is more or less similar to his earlier job.

Benefits of Job Rotation
1. Raises intrinsic reward potential of a job: Job Rotation is likely to raise intrinsic reward potential of a job due to different skill and abilities needed to perform it. A worker becomes a broader based versatile worker due to job rotation. Management gets the benefit of job rotation because workers become competent in several jobs rather than only in one job. Staff adjustment in different department is possible easily due it the practice of job rotation.

2. Beneficial to the organization: Due to job rotation, the organization stands to gain because of the versatility of its employees who develop skills due to job rotation. It develops a common culture because of wide and common exposure to workers.

3. Worker becomes competent in several jobs: Due to job rotation, workers know about a variety of jobs. It also facilitates personal growth of employees and makes the workers more useful and valuable to the organization. The organization stands to benefit as the workers become competent in several jobs. As and result, the management gets employees who can perform a variety of tasks to meet contingencies.

4. Improves inter-departmental co-operation: Periodical job rotation improves inter-departmental co-operation. Employees understand each other’s problems properly and this facilitates co-operation among them.

5. Motivates employees: Job rotation technique is used for motivating employees in the organizations. It is suggested as a motivational strategy.

6. Reduce Boredom: Job rotation reduce boredom and disinterest among employees. Due to job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs of more or less the same nature. The employee gets some variety of work, workplace and peers.

7. Develops wide skills among workers: job rotation develops and wide range of skills among employees. It broadens knowledge and skills of an employee. Personal worth of employee also improves.

Job Rotation in HDFC Bank
In HDFC Bank all employees involved in the Job Rotation Schedule. In HDFC Bank the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years.

The flexibility and consideration is given to those employees who have Physical difficulty for such employee there is no Job Rotation for example: Deaf and Dumb. Job Rotation takes in bank for other new comers to show their work as per their knowledge and to avoid frauds.

For Job Rotation of the employees meeting are held in every 6 months and for officers it is 3 years. The employees are been provided with the rule and regulation.

Job Rotation in Indian Overseas Bank:
In JOB all the employees involved in the job rotation schedule, the staffs, clerks and officers. The staffs and clerks have internal rotation and officers get rotate to other branch.

As per the Bank rule the staff gets rotated in every 6 months and the officers get rotated in every 3 years. The flexibility and consideration is been given and those individual who have physical deficiency have no job rotation.

The employees are involved in the rotation schedule for other individual to their talent and to avoid malpractices and frauds. Meetings are held to know the employee which further position he will take place to determine interest and gain involvement. According to the employee performance and response towards his job on that basis the job is rotated.

Job Rotation in RBI
In RBI the job rotation is mainly concerned with the officers. The officers in RBI get their job rotated in every year. For such job rotation the employees who are going to get rotated meeting are held so that the officers get to know their future role. According to the rules and conditions to determine interest and gain involvement.

Job Transfer
In business organizations, employees are shifted from one post to the other or from one department to other or one unit/ branch/ plant of the company to the other. This is called as job transfer of transfer of employees. Such transfers are quite common in case of Banks, government department, manufacturing companies and other business organizations.

A transfer is defined as, “a change in job where the new job is substantially equal to the old in term of pay, status and responsibilities.”

Transfers of employees do cerate some resentment from concerned employees. This is natural as transfers may create certain personal and family problems. In addition, an employee has to adjust with new situation. Finally it may be pointed out that transfer is neither promotion nor demotion but merely a horizontal or lateral movement of an employee from one job, to another at same other place where the salary, status and responsibilities are more or less the same.

Reasons of Job Transfer
1. Variation in the volume of work: Transfers are necessary due to variation in the volume of work in different department/ sections. Shortage of employees or increase in the work load in one department leads to transfer of employees.
2. Providing training to employee: Transfers are made for providing opportunities to employees for training and development.
3. Rectification of poor placement: Transfers are necessary for the rectification of poor placement made in the initial period. Similarly, transfers are necessary in order to utilize the service of an employee in the best possible manner.
4. Satisfied the personal need of employee: Transfers are necessary satisfy the personal needs (Personal Difficulties) of the employees. They include family problems, sickness, and education of children and so on. Such transfers take place especially among female employees.
5. Meeting mutual need of employees: Transfers are, sometimes, made in order to meet the mutual needs of to employees. It is a type of mutual exchange and is usually accepted by the management.
6. Meeting Organizational needs: transfers are necessary to meet the organizational needs developed out of expansion programmes or fluctuation in work requirements or changes in the organizational structure or dropping of existing product lines. For example, experienced workers and supervisors are transfer to new plants/ factories in order to manage the work smoothly.
7. Solution to poor performance: transfers are, sometimes, made when the worker fail to perform his job efficiently. He is transferred to and new place or post and is given an opportunity to improve his performance at a new place. Here, transfer is treated as a deter alternative to outright dismissal.
8. Avoiding fatigue and monotony: Transfers are made of avoiding fatigue and monotony of work. The productivity of an employee may decline due to monotony of his or her job. To break his monotony, the employee is transferred.
9. Removing poor personal relations: the relations between the workers and his supervisor may not be smooth and cordial. This may affect the work of department. One method to solve the problem is to transfer the worker that department. This transfer may be necessary for removal of the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her boss or between one worker and the other.
10. Providing relief and to punish employees: Transfers may be made in order to give relief to employees who are over burdened or are working under heavy risk or tension over a long period. Similarly, transfers are made as a disciplinary action for serious mistakes on the part of employees. This practice is widespread mainly in government offices and police department.

Principle of Sound Transfer Policy
Company managements must frame a policy on transfers and apply it to all transfers instead of treating each transfer on its own merits. Such policy must be based on the following principles of transfers:

1. Necessary Transfer: Transfers should be made only when absolutely necessary. The frequency of transfers and the minimum period between transfers need to be decided clearly and made know to all employees. The basis of transfers should be properly decided. Large scale transfers, frequent transfers and transfers for the sake of transfers should be avoided by laying down adequate selection and placement procedures for the purpose.

2. Responsibility of Transfers: Responsibility for initiating and approving transfer decisions should be clearly defined and properly located. The authority to handle transfers should be decided clearly. The best course is to centralize the authority handling transfers and make the personnel/HR department responsible for all transfers.

3. Fair Transfers: Transfer should not be made as a punishment or as revenge on an employee or simply to trouble an employee and his family members.

4. Consideration of Employees: Transfers should be made after taking concerned employee in to confidence and after explaining how transfer is in the best interest of the organization and employee.

5. Interest of Organization: All transfers should be made in the best interest of the organization. In addition, there should be sound justification in the case of all transfers made. The management should be able to prove its objectivity and impartiality as regards transfers made.

6. Sound Transfer Policy: Management should prepare a sound transfer policy for a long period. It should be given wide publicity for the information of employees. The interests of the organization should not be forgotten while framing a policy of transfers.

7. Employees View: An employee should be given an opportunity to appeal to an appropriate authority with full opportunity to an employee to express his views.

8. And request for transfer by an employee on sound personal grounds (e.g. family problems, health, schooling of children, unsuitability of climate, etc.) Should be considered sympathetically and granted promptly.

Types of Transfer
There are different types of transfers depending on purpose for which the transfers made. The important ones will now be highlighted as follows:

1. Production Transfers: These transfers are made from one department where the labour requirements are generally reduced to departments where labour needs are increasing or vacancies have occurred through separations. Such production transfers are made to prevent lay-offs. It is meaningless to have in the same organization lay-offs on one job and employees being needed in another department for a similar type of work. Thus, production transfers, at about the same occupational level, help to stabilize employment in an organization and therefore need some form of centralized control, say, through the Personnel Department. Sometimes, production transfers may involve downgrading, that is, being transferred to less skilled jobs. Although it is called production transfers, similar situations can also exist in non-manufacturing enterprises or divisions where an employee is transferred from one department to another for similar reasons.

2. Replacement transfers: From the view-point of purpose, replacement transfers are similar to production transfers as they also try to avoid lay-offs. Replacement transfers are used, however, to replace a new employee with an employee who has been in the organization for a long time.

3. Shift transfers: This is a common type of transfer of an employee from one shift to another on the same type of work. Workers generally dislike a second shift assignment as it affects their participation n community life.

Therefore, to minimize this, shift transfers are introduced. Of course, there are certain employees who would prefer the second or the third shift. For example, were the women are working, mothers might prefer to work in such shift so that they could be during the day with their children’s.

4. Remedial transfers: As the title suggests, these transfers are made to remedy the situation. For example, if the initial placement has been faulty, or the worker cannot gat along with his supervisor, a transfer to a more appropriate job or more agreeable supervisor might result in better performance. In this way, a good organization treats its employees as individuals, of course, within the broad policy framework.

5. Versatility transfers: The objective of these transfers is to increase the versatility of the employee by shifting hid from one job to another. In this way, the employee is provided a varied and broader job experience. This helps the employee through job enrichment and job enrichment. It can also help him get prepared for future promotions. Besides, it helps the organization, as enrichment of an employee would make him not only more effective but also ready for higher openings.

Job Transfer in Bank of Baroda
In Bank of Baroda there is different policy for Clark and Officer. Clarks are transfer every 5 year from one branch to another branch in the same region. Region indicates the cities like Mumbai, Pune and Nashik etc.
Officers of the branch are transfer every 3 year from one branch to another branch from one zone to another zone. Zone indicates south, north, west and west.


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